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The aim of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affect processing in depressed anhedonic patients and healthy controls. Whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from seven females with a diagnosis of chronic unipolar major depression and high levels of anhedonia, and seven healthy females, while they were(More)
BACKGROUND Dysfunctions in brain regions known to be involved in affect and mood states are thought to be implicated in depression and may have a role in determining the type and symptoms of this illness. METHODS Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to elucidate neural correlates of cognitive generation of affect, using a previously published(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment resistance is a common clinical phenomenon in depression. However, current unitary models of staging fail to represent its complexity. We aimed to devise a model to stage treatment-resistant depression, taking into account the core factors contributing to treatment failure. METHOD We reviewed the literature to identify factors(More)
Alterations in cellular immune function are associated with depression and have been related to changes in endocrine function. We carried out a study to: (i) reliably assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in treatment resistant depression (TRP); (ii) evaluate whether depression was associated with changes on T-cell proliferation and(More)
Alterations in immune function are associated with major depression and have been related to changes in endocrine function. We investigated whether alterations in immune function were associated with altered basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function (salivary cortisol) and lymphocyte sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX) intake (1 mg PO). The latter(More)
Previously, we have shown that in vitro antidepressants modulate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function and expression, and have suggested that these effects could be relevant for the mechanism of action of antidepressants. To further clarify the interaction between antidepressants and glucocorticoids, we evaluated the in vitro effect of the tricyclic(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is sensitive to sex, with healthy young women showing less PPI compared with age-matched men, and varies according to the menstrual cycle phase in women. Relatively less is known regarding sex and hormonal influences in prepulse facilitation (PPF). Menstrual phase-related variability in PPI is suggested to(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with hypocortisolism, but it is not yet clear the extent to which enhanced negative feedback may underlie this finding. METHODS We undertook a low-dose dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression test in 18 CFS patients and 20 matched, healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol levels at 0800 h, 1200 h,(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is sensitive to sex with women showing less PPI compared with age-matched men and varies according to the menstrual cycle in women. Relatively less is known about sex differences in prepulse facilitation (PPF). To examine further the roles of sex and circulating sex hormones, pre- (n=20) and postmenopausal(More)
Chronic antidepressant treatment increases glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and thus reduces HPA axis activity, in depressed patients and healthy controls. In contrast, acute antidepressant treatment induces an activation of basal HPA axis activity. We examined the effects of 4 days of treatment(More)