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Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. In the advanced stages of the disease, beta-cell dysfunction worsens and insulin therapy may be necessary to achieve satisfactory metabolic control. Studies in autopsies found decreased beta-cell mass in pancreas of people with type 2 diabetes. Apoptosis, a constitutive(More)
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. IGF-1 increases in inflamed and fibrotic tissues and induces proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). This study evaluates the potential roles of these hormones in the development of liver fibrosis. Insulin and IGF-1 receptor expression was(More)
Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 is a member of the mitochondrial inner membrane carriers that uncouple pro-ton entry in the mitochondrial matrix from ATP synthesis. The -866G/A polymorphism in the UCP2 gene, which enhances its transcriptional activity, was associated with enhanced risk for type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. We addressed the question of whether(More)
OBJECTIVE The C-174G promoter polymorphism of the interleukin (IL)-6 gene was found to influence transcriptional activity and plasma IL-6 levels in humans. We addressed the question of whether the C-174G IL-6 polymorphism contributes to variation of insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two cohorts of subjects were genotyped. Cohort 1 includes(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS) and may induce cytotoxicity through persistent activation of glutamate receptors and oxidative stress. Its extracellular concentration is maintained at physiological concentrations by high affinity glutamate transporters of the solute carrier 1 family (SLC1). Glutamate is(More)
Insulin resistance, reduced β-cell mass, and hyperglucagonemia are consistent features in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used pancreas and islets from humans with T2DM to examine the regulation of insulin signaling and cell-cycle control of islet cells. We observed reduced β-cell mass and increased α-cell mass in the Type 2 diabetic pancreas. Confocal(More)
Insulin and angiotensin II are hormones that play pivotal roles in the control of two vital and closely related systems, the metabolic and the circulatory systems, respectively. A failure in the proper action of each of these hormones results, to a variable degree, in the development of two highly prevalent and commonly overlapping diseases-diabetes(More)
Increase in adipose mass results in obesity and modulation of several factors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Two important examples are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and leptin, both of which are upregulated in adipose tissue in obesity. In order to isolate genes differentially expressed in the WAT of genetically obese db/db mice compared to their(More)
A deficit of nigrostriatal, mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems in Parkinson's disease is well known. We know less about the involvement of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TID) systems. In untreated (naive or wash-out) men with Parkinson's disease, we studied TID function through basal and stimulated plasma levels of growth hormone, prolactin and(More)
Effects of long-term antiepileptic therapy on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis were evaluated from the basal and stimulated plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) and from circadian adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol rhythms. Data for patients with well-controlled epilepsy of mild-to-moderate severity were compared with those for(More)