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Comorbidities that promote the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain to be uncovered and evaluated in animal models. Because elderly individuals are vulnerable to viral and bacterial infections, these microbial agents may be considered important comorbidities that could potentiate an already existing and tenuous inflammatory condition in the brain,(More)
Gastrointestinal nematode infections generally invoke a type 2 cytokine response, characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Among these cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 exhibit a functional overlap that can be explained by the sharing of a common receptor or receptor component (IL-4Ralpha). Binding of IL-4 by either the type 1 or 2 IL-4R, or(More)
OBJECTIVE To reconstitute immune responses capable of eliminating infected cells and suppressing viral load during chronic retroviral infection. DESIGN : A topical, DNA-based therapeutic immunization (DermaVir) was designed to express most of the regulatory and structural viral genes in dendritic cells. METHODS DermaVir alone and in combination with(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in cumulative neurologic deficits associated with progressive myelin loss. We have previously shown that transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines have the potential to improve antiretroviral drug treatment by inducing cytotoxic killing of HIV-infected cells. Prophylactic vaccines utilize new antigens to initiate immunity; however, in HIV-infected individuals the load of viral antigen is not the limiting factor for the restoration of immune responses. Here(More)