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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for both somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination in activated B cells. AID is also known to target nonimmunoglobulin genes and introduce mutations or chromosomal translocations, eventually causing tumors. To identify as-yet-unknown AID targets, we screened early AID-induced DNA breaks by(More)
To initiate class switch recombination (CSR) activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces staggered nick cleavage in the S region, which lies 5' to each Ig constant region gene and is rich in palindromic sequences. Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) controls the supercoiling of DNA by nicking, rotating, and religating one strand of DNA. Curiously, Top1 reduction(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential factor for the class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes. CSR and SHM are initiated by AID-induced DNA breaks in the S and V regions, respectively. Because truncation or frame-shift mutations at the carboxyl (C)-terminus of AID abolishes CSR but not SHM, the(More)
An ortholog of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was, evolutionarily, the first enzyme to generate acquired immune diversity by catalyzing gene conversion and probably somatic hypermutation (SHM). AID began to mediate class switch recombination (CSR) only after the evolution of frogs. Recent studies revealed that the mechanisms for generating(More)
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