Lucas Wetzel

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The chronic effects of dietary administration of atrazine at levels as high as 400 ppm on selected endocrine and tumor profiles were evaluated in Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley female rats. The study showed that lifetime dietary administration of atrazine at a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to Sprague-Dawley female rats caused (1) lengthening of the estrous(More)
The symmetrical triazine herbicides have been used for the preemergence control of broadleaf weeds for nearly three decades. Recently, certain members of this class, primarily the chlorotriazines (substituted in the 2 position), have been shown to evoke an increased incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. This response was noted when(More)
In an accompanying article (see pp. 183-196), it was reported that administration of very high doses of the chlorotriazine herbicides atrazine, simazine, and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), a common metabolite, expressed antiestrogenic activity in uteri of female Sprague-Dawley rats without expressing intrinsic estrogenic activity. In the present article,(More)
Atrazine or simazine (s-chlorotriazines) was administered by gavage daily for 2 wk to female Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rats at oral doses of 100 or 300 mg/kg to evaluate effects on body, ovary, uterus, and adrenal weights, estrous cycle stages, vaginal cytology, and plasma hormone (estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and corticosterone) levels.(More)
An increased incidence or earlier onset of mammary tumors (MT) has been associated with lifetime feeding of atrazine, an agricultural herbicide, to Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats. Because MT occur spontaneously in this strain, along with episodes of persistent estrus and acyclic estrogen secretion, it was proposed that atrazine may act to promote this(More)
An extensive safety database has been developed for the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine. The results from five oncogenicity studies conducted in the Sprague-Dawley rat, two studies in the Fischer 344 rat, and two studies in the CD-1 mouse were reviewed. No increase in the incidence of tumors of any type was observed in male or female Fischer 344 rats,(More)
Chlorotriazines are widely used in agriculture as broadleaf herbicides. The compounds specifically inhibit photosynthesis, and, as such, display little interaction with animal systems. However, a 24-month feeding study with atrazine (ATR) revealed a significant dose-related increase of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Because numerous(More)
Triazine herbicides are among the most heavily used agricultural pesticides. Although they possess a very low acute toxicity in animals, a mammary tumor response has been consistently observed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats following chronic oral dosing of atrazine and simazine at and above maximum tolerated doses. However, a substantial collection of(More)
Several published reports have indicated that certain chloro-s-triazine herbicides may alter endocrine function in rats, possibly by androgen receptor binding. In direct tests of estrogenic bioactivity, oral doses of up to 300 mg/kg/d of atrazine, simazine, or the common metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) did not significantly increase uterine weight(More)
For next-generation wireless networks, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) promises significant performance gains compared to today’s wireless communication standards. In this paper, we address the challenge of how to synchronize the carrier signals of all antenna units in a large network. We show that mutually coupled digital phase-locked loops(More)