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Fluorescence in situ hybridization allows the enumeration of chromosomal abnormalities in interphase cell nuclei. This process is called dot counting. To estimate the distribution of chromosomes per cell, a large number of cells have to be analyzed, especially when the frequency of aberrant cells is low. Automation of dot counting is required because manual(More)
One of the essential ways in which nonlinear image restoration algorithms differ from linear, convolution-type image restoration filters is their capability to restrict the restoration result to nonnegative intensities. The iterative constrained Tikhonov-Miller (ICTM) algorithm, for example, incorporates the nonnegativity constraint by clipping all negative(More)
In this paper, we compare the performance of three iterative methods for image restoration: the Richardson–Lucy algorithm, the iterative constrained Tikhonov–Miller algorithm (ICTM) and the Carrington algorithm. Both the ICTM and the Carrington algorithm are based on an additive Gaussian noise model, but differ in the way they incorporate the non-negativity(More)
Accurate modeling of image formation in cryo-electron microscopy is an important requirement for quantitative image interpretation and optimization of the data acquisition strategy. Here we present a forward model that accounts for the specimen's scattering properties, microscope optics, and detector response. The specimen interaction potential is(More)
An image processing algorithm is presented to reconstruct optical pathlength distributions from images of nonabsorbing weak phase objects, obtained by a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope, equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The method is demonstrated on DIC images of transparent latex spheres and unstained bovine spermatozoa. The(More)
BACKGROUND The ratio of two measured fluorescence signals (called x and y) is used in different applications in fluorescence microscopy. Multiple instances of both signals can be combined in different ways to construct different ratio estimators. METHODS The mean and variance of three estimators for the ratio between two random variables, x and y, are(More)
Studies of protein dynamics by 4D (3D + time) confocal microscopy in vivo are hampered by global cell motion. The time between the acquisitions of the 3D images is in the order of minutes. Therefore, it is not to be expected that the cell as a whole remains fixed in the water basin on the stage. This superimposes a motion on the protein dynamics that has to(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to report the effect on lesion conspicuity and the practical efficiency of electronic cleansing for CT colonography (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were included from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center public database. All patients had undergone extensive bowel preparation with fecal tagging. A primary 3D(More)
Digital image processing and analysis provide a powerful tool for describing optical systems. In this paper we show that conventional formulas for the depth-of-focus (∆z) of a high numerical aperture, diffraction-limited optical system are incorrect. Using standard diffraction wave theory we have (rediscovered d a formula for ∆z and then tested that formula(More)