Lucas A. Horn

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Chronic inflammation often precedes malignant transformation and later drives tumor progression. Likewise, subversion of the immune system plays a role in tumor progression, with tumoral immune escape now well recognized as a crucial hallmark of cancer. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are present in most cancer patients and experimental animals where they exert a profound immune suppression and are a significant obstacle to immunotherapy. IFN-γ and IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) have been implicated as essential molecules for MDSC development and immunosuppressive function. If IFN-γ and IL-4Rα are(More)
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by reverse signaling through T(More)
Genetic instability, a hallmark feature of human cancers including prostatic adenocarcinomas, is considered a driver of metastasis. Somatic copy number alterations (CNA) are found in most aggressive primary human prostate cancers, and the overall number of such changes is increased in metastases. Chromosome 10q23 deletions, encompassing PTEN, and(More)
Most multicellular organisms show a physiological decline in immune function with age. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes. We examined Drosophila melanogaster, an important model for identifying genes affecting innate immunity and senescence, to explore the role of phagocytosis in age-related immune dysfunction. We(More)
Tumor cells use various methods of immunosuppression to overcome antitumor immunity. One such method is that of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 or B7-H1), which upon binding its receptor PD-1 on T cells triggers apoptotic death of the activated T cells. Overexpression of the costimulatory molecule CD80 on PD-L1(+) tumor cells, or inclusion of a soluble(More)
Life history theory hypothesizes that genetically based variation in life history traits results from alleles that alter age-specific patterns of energy allocation among the competing demands of reproduction, storage, and maintenance. Despite the important role that alleles with age-specific effects must play in life history evolution, few naturally(More)
We previously developed cell-based vaccines as therapeutics for metastatic cancers. The vaccines were aimed at activating type I CD4+T cells and consisted of tumor cells transfected with genes encoding syngeneic MHC class II and CD80 costimulatory molecules, and lacking the MHC II-associated invariant chain. The vaccines showed some efficacy in mice with(More)
Bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs) activate T cells through CD3 and target activated T cells to tumor-expressed antigens. BiTEs have shown therapeutic efficacy in patients with liquid tumors; however, they do not benefit all patients. Anti-tumor immunity is limited by Programmed Death 1 (PD1) pathway-mediated immune suppression, and patients who do not(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are immune-suppressive cells that are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their accumulation and suppressive activity are driven by inflammation. As myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor progression, we are determining how their viability is regulated. Previous studies(More)