Lucas A Horn

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In the thymus, VIP-positive (+) fibers were found in the capsular/septal system, cortex, and medulla. In the spleen, VIP+ nerves coursed along large arteries and central arterioles, and in the white pulp, venous/trabecular system, and red pulp. Splenic VIP innervation was more robust in Long-Evans hooded rats than in Fischer 344 rats. VIP+ nerves in(More)
Chronic inflammation often precedes malignant transformation and later drives tumor progression. Likewise, subversion of the immune system plays a role in tumor progression, with tumoral immune escape now well recognized as a crucial hallmark of cancer. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their(More)
Most multicellular organisms show a physiological decline in immune function with age. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes. We examined Drosophila melanogaster, an important model for identifying genes affecting innate immunity and senescence, to explore the role of phagocytosis in age-related immune dysfunction. We(More)
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by reverse signaling through T(More)
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