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In two experiments, we investigated whether 13-month-old infants expect agents to behave in a way that is consistent with information to which they have been exposed. Infants watched animations in which an animal was either provided information or prevented from gathering information about the actual location of an object. The animal then searched(More)
The problem of how to distribute available resources among members of a group is a central aspect of social life. Adults react negatively to inequitable distributions and several studies have reported negative reactions to inequity also in non-human primates and dogs. We report two experiments on infants' reactions to equal and unequal distributions. In two(More)
Using a standard prediction of action task, we Žnd that normally developing 3-yearold children successfully take into account a protagonist’s false belief when asked a ‘look Žrst’ question. When asked this same question in a true belief scenario, 3-yearolds also correctly predict a protagonist’s action even though in this case the correct answer is the(More)
"Theory of mind" (ToM) means the ability to represent others' intentions, knowledge and beliefs and interpret them. Children with autism typically fail tasks aimed at assessing their understanding of false beliefs. These features of autism are strikingly similar to some negative features of schizophrenia. Mental abilities were studied in 35 schizophrenics(More)
Department of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK High-functioning children with autism show a severe deficit in the development of pragmatics whereas their knowledge of syntax and morphology is relatively intact. In this study we investigated further their selective communication impairment by comparing them with children with specific(More)
In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years advocated(More)
The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation (to be(More)
Patients with right hemisphere (RHD) or left hemisphere brain damage (LHD) were tested on Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks presented with visual aids that illustrated the relevant premises. As a measure of pragmatic ability, patients were also asked to judge replies in conversation that violated Gricean maxims. Both RHD and LHD patients performed well on the ToM(More)
This investigation examined whether access to sign language as a medium for instruction influences theory of mind (ToM) reasoning in deaf children with similar home language environments. Experiment 1 involved 97 deaf Italian children ages 4-12 years: 56 were from deaf families and had LIS (Italian Sign Language) as their native language, and 41 had(More)