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In two experiments, we investigated whether 13-month-old infants expect agents to behave in a way that is consistent with information to which they have been exposed. Infants watched animations in which an animal was either provided information or prevented from gathering information about the actual location of an object. The animal then searched(More)
"Theory of mind" (ToM) means the ability to represent others' intentions, knowledge and beliefs and interpret them. Children with autism typically fail tasks aimed at assessing their understanding of false beliefs. These features of autism are strikingly similar to some negative features of schizophrenia. Mental abilities were studied in 35 schizophrenics(More)
Using a standard prediction of action task, we nd that normally developing 3-year-old children successfully take into account a protagonist's false belief when asked a 'look rst' question. When asked this same question in a true belief scenario, 3-year-olds also correctly predict a protagonist's action even though in this case the correct answer is the(More)
Department of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK High-functioning children with autism show a severe deficit in the development of pragmatics whereas their knowledge of syntax and morphology is relatively intact. In this study we investigated further their selective communication impairment by comparing them with children with specific(More)
Patients with right hemisphere (RHD) or left hemisphere brain damage (LHD) were tested on Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks presented with visual aids that illustrated the relevant premises. As a measure of pragmatic ability, patients were also asked to judge replies in conversation that violated Gricean maxims. Both RHD and LHD patients performed well on the ToM(More)
Children's understanding of the implications of conversation can influence their responses on tasks designed to measure conceptual development. These responses are in keeping with developmental changes in the ability to recognize and resolve ambiguity in communicative contexts, as shown, for example, in children's ability to compute "scalar implicatures".(More)
Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either one or two(More)
Based on anticipatory looking and reactions to violations of expected events, infants have been credited with 'theory of mind' (ToM) knowledge that a person's search behaviour for an object will be guided by true or false beliefs about the object's location. However, little is known about the preconditions for looking patterns consistent with belief(More)
Children with autism and typically developing children walked blindfolded to a previously seen target (blindwalking task) and matched the frontal to the sagittal extent of a pattern formed by ropes on the ground (L-matching task). All participants were accurate in the blindwalking task. Children with autism were also very accurate in the matching task. By(More)