Luca Rossetti

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Glucagon, the counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, is secreted from pancreatic alpha cells in response to low blood glucose. To examine the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis, mice were generated with a null mutation of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr(-/-)). These mice display lower blood glucose levels throughout the day and improved glucose tolerance(More)
The hexosamine pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. We determined first that hyperglycemia induced a decrease in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells via increased production of mitochondrial superoxide and a concomitant 2.4-fold increase in hexosamine pathway activity.(More)
Intraperitoneal injection of purified recombinant Acrp30 lowers glucose levels in mice. To gain insight into the mechanism(s) of this hypoglycemic effect, purified recombinant Acrp30 was infused in conscious mice during a pancreatic euglycemic clamp. In the presence of physiological hyperinsulinemia, this treatment increased circulating Acrp30 levels by(More)
Leptin, the protein encoded by the obese (ob) gene, is synthesized and released in response to increased energy storage in adipose tissue. However, it is still not known how incoming energy is sensed and transduced into increased expression of the ob gene. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is a cellular 'sensor' of energy availability and mediates the(More)
To date, there has been a lack of evidence-based guidance on the frequency of visual field examinations required to identify clinically meaningful rates of change in glaucoma. The objective of this perspective is to provide practical recommendations for this purpose. The primary emphasis is on the period of time and number of examinations required to(More)
The physiological role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II (IGF-II) in adult humans is poorly understood. Rather high levels of IGF-II persist in adult human serum, whereas, in rodents, IGF-II levels are very low. To investigate the physiological and carcinogenic effects of persistently elevated IGF-II in adults, we have produced two lines of transgenic(More)
Increased plasma FFA reduce insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The mechanisms responsible for this inhibition, however, remain uncertain. It was the aim of this study to determine whether the FFA effect was dose dependent and to investigate its mechanism. We have examined in healthy volunteers (13 male/1 female) the effects of three steady state plasma FFA(More)
To examine the relationship between plasma insulin concentration and intracellular glucose metabolism in control and diabetic rats, we measured endogenous glucose production, glucose uptake, whole body glycolysis, muscle and liver glycogen synthesis, and rectus muscle glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration basally and during the infusion of 2, 3, 4, 12,(More)
We have examined the effect of chronic (4 wk) hyperglycemia on insulin secretion in vivo in an awake, unstressed rat model. Three groups of animals were examined: control, partial (90%) pancreatectomy, and partial pancreatectomy plus phlorizin, in order to normalize plasma glucose levels. Insulin secretion in response to arginine (2 mM), hyperglycemia (+100(More)
Energy balance and insulin action are tightly coregulated. Leptin regulates energy intake and expenditure partly by modulation of the melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamus. Here we demonstrate potent effects of the melanocortin pathway on insulin action and body distribution of adiposity. Conscious rats received week-long infusions of either a(More)