Luca Piacentini

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Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a human cytidine deaminase, is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. To explore a possible role of this protein in modulating in vivo susceptibility to HIV infection, we analyzed APOBEC3G expression in HIV-exposed seronegative individuals, HIV-seropositive patients, and healthy(More)
The ligation of programmed death-ligand 1 (B7-H1) to T cells results in the preferential production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We investigated if B7-H1 would be up-regulated in HIV infection, a disease characterized by increased IL-10 production, by measuring B7-H1, B7-1 (CD80), and B7-2 (CD86) expression and mRNA in 36 HIV-infected patients and in 22(More)
Effective therapy for prion diseases is currently unavailable. Recently, vaccination was shown to be effective in mouse models of a particular neurodegenerative conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that vaccination with synthetic oligopeptides homologous to the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) prion protein augments survival time in animals(More)
Susceptibility to HIV infection is widely different among individuals, and it is known that individuals can be identified who are repeatedly exposed to HIV but in whom neither infection nor disease are seen. The possibility that sheer luck is not the only determinant of this phenomenon begun to be considered in 1989 when it was reported that T cell(More)
APOBEC3 genes encode cytidine deaminases endowed with the ability to inhibit retroviruses and retrotransposons. These genes have been targets of natural selection throughout primate evolutionary history. We analyzed their selection pattern in human populations observing that APOBEC3F and 3G are neutrally evolving. Conversely, nucleotide diversity was(More)
Human ERAP1 and ERAP2 encode two endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases. These enzymes trim peptides to optimal size for loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and shape the antigenic repertoire presented to CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, ERAP1 and ERAP2 may be considered potential selection targets and modulators of infection(More)
BACKGROUND During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated. METHODS Rectosigmoid colonic (RSC) biopsies and blood samples of nine patients with acute HIV infection(More)
Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in subjects who do not seroconvert despite multiple exposures to the virus and to the progression to AIDS in HIV‐infected individuals depends on multiple factors involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The contribution of natural immunity in preventing HIV infection has so(More)
BACKGROUND CCL28 (MEC) binds to CCR3 and CCR10 and recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells (IgA-ASC) in the mucosal lamina propria (MLP). Mucosal HIV-specific IgA are detected in HIV-infection and exposure. The CCL28 circuit was analyzed in HIV-infected and-exposed individuals and in HIV-unexposed controls; the effect of CCL28 administration on gastrointestinal(More)
We extended the investigation of the virus-host interaction in developing countries by analysing Indian HIV-infected and uninfected individuals from Maharashtra-Mumbai. Results showed that CXCR4 messenger RNA and surface expression, as well as IL-4 mRNA and T allele frequency at the -589 site in the IL-4 gene (high IL-4 production) were significantly(More)