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Effective therapy for prion diseases is currently unavailable. Recently, vaccination was shown to be effective in mouse models of a particular neurodegenerative conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that vaccination with synthetic oligopeptides homologous to the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) prion protein augments survival time in animals(More)
The ligation of programmed death-ligand 1 (B7-H1) to T cells results in the preferential production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We investigated if B7-H1 would be up-regulated in HIV infection, a disease characterized by increased IL-10 production, by measuring B7-H1, B7-1 (CD80), and B7-2 (CD86) expression and mRNA in 36 HIV-infected patients and in 22(More)
Human ERAP1 and ERAP2 encode two endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases. These enzymes trim peptides to optimal size for loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and shape the antigenic repertoire presented to CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, ERAP1 and ERAP2 may be considered potential selection targets and modulators of infection(More)
We extended the investigation of the virus-host interaction in developing countries by analysing Indian HIV-infected and uninfected individuals from Maharashtra-Mumbai. Results showed that CXCR4 messenger RNA and surface expression, as well as IL-4 mRNA and T allele frequency at the -589 site in the IL-4 gene (high IL-4 production) were significantly(More)
Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is present(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses are defective in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). This defect has been attributed to the decreased antigenic burden secondary to ART-associated suppression of HIV-replication, and is responsible for the rebounds of viraemia that occur when patients interrupt therapy. CTL(More)
The human interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) gene encodes a sensor of double-strand RNA involved in innate immunity against viruses, indicating that this gene is a likely target of virus-driven selective pressure. Notably, IFIH1 also plays a role in autoimmunity, as common and rare polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with type 1(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a human cytidine deaminase, is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. To explore a possible role of this protein in modulating in vivo susceptibility to HIV infection, we analyzed APOBEC3G expression in HIV-exposed seronegative individuals, HIV-seropositive patients, and healthy(More)
Repeated exposure to HIV does not necessarily result in infection and HIV infection does not inevitably lead to the development of the AIDS. Multiple immunological and genetic features can confer resistance to HIV acquisition and progression at different steps in viral infection; a full understanding of these mechanisms could result in the development of(More)
TLRs trigger innate immunity that recognizes conserved motifs of invading pathogens, resulting in cellular activation and release of inflammatory factors. The influence of TLR activation on resistance to HIV-1 infection has not been investigated in HIV-1 exposed seronegative (ESN) individuals. PBMCs isolated from heterosexually ESN individuals were(More)