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We show that the phase sensitivity Deltatheta of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer illuminated by a coherent state in one input port and a squeezed-vacuum state in the other port is (i) independent of the true value of the phase shift and (ii) can reach the Heisenberg limit Deltatheta approximately 1/N(T), where N(T) is the average number of input particles. We(More)
We show that quantum Fisher information provides a sufficient condition to recognize multiparticle entanglement in an N qubit state. The same criterion gives a necessary and sufficient condition for sub-shot-noise phase sensitivity in the estimation of a collective rotation angle theta. The analysis therefore singles out the class of entangled states which(More)
Interferometers with atomic ensembles are an integral part of modern precision metrology. However, these interferometers are fundamentally restricted by the shot noise limit, which can only be overcome by creating quantum entanglement among the atoms. We used spin dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates to create large ensembles of up to 10(4) pair-correlated(More)
A major challenge of the phase estimation problem is the engineering of high-intensity entangled probe states. The goal is to significantly enhance above the shot-noise limit the sensitivity of two-mode interferometers. Here we show that this can be achieved by squeezing in input, and then measuring in output, the population fluctuations of a single mode.(More)
Quantum metrology is the state-of-the-art measurement technology. It uses quantum resources to enhance the sensitivity of phase estimation over that achievable by classical physics. While single parameter estimation theory has been widely investigated, much less is known about the simultaneous estimation of multiple phases, which finds key applications in(More)
Entanglement is the key quantum resource for improving measurement sensitivity beyond classical limits. However, the production of entanglement in mesoscopic atomic systems has been limited to squeezed states, described by Gaussian statistics. Here, we report on the creation and characterization of non-Gaussian many-body entangled states. We develop a(More)
Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to(More)
Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case, the vacuum noise restricts the precision of the(More)
We study a Mach-Zehnder interferometer fed by a coherent state in one input port and vacuum in the other. We explore a Bayesian phase estimation strategy to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve the standard quantum limit independently from the true value of the phase shift and specific assumptions on the noise of the interferometer. We have been able(More)
We experimentally demonstrate a general criterion to identify entangled states useful for the estimation of an unknown phase shift with a sensitivity higher than the shot-noise limit. We show how to exploit this entanglement on the examples of a maximum likelihood as well as of a Bayesian phase estimation protocol. Using an entangled four-photon state we(More)