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Rhomboids, evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteases, participate in crucial signaling pathways. Presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL) is an inner mitochondrial membrane rhomboid of unknown function, whose yeast ortholog is involved in mitochondrial fusion. Parl-/- mice display normal intrauterine development but from the fourth postnatal(More)
BACKGROUND The rhomboid family of polytopic membrane proteins shows a level of evolutionary conservation unique among membrane proteins. They are present in nearly all the sequenced genomes of archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes, with the exception of several species with small genomes. On the basis of experimental studies with the developmental regulator(More)
In the Fifties, electron microscopy studies on neuronal cells showed that mitochondria typically cluster at synaptic terminals, thereby introducing the concept that proper mitochondria trafficking and partitioning inside the cell could provide functional support to the execution of key physiological processes. Today, the notion that a central event in the(More)
Synaptic vesicles segregate into functionally diverse subpopulations within presynaptic terminals, yet there is no information about how this may occur. Here we demonstrate that a distinct subgroup of vesicles within individual glutamatergic, mossy fiber terminals contain vesicular zinc that is critical for the rapid release of a subgroup of synaptic(More)
Increased levels of intracellular zinc have been implicated in neuronal cell death in ischaemia, epilepsy and traumatic brain damage. However, decreases in zinc levels also lead to increased neuronal death and lowered seizure threshold. In the present study we investigated the physiological role of zinc in neurodegeneration and protection following(More)
In the nervous system, zinc can influence synaptic responses and at extreme concentrations contributes to epileptic and ischaemic neuronal injury. Zinc can originate from synaptic vesicles, the extracellular space and from intracellular stores. In this study, we aimed to determine which of these zinc pools is responsible for the increased hippocampal(More)
Physodes have been recognized in meristodermic and promeristematic cells by correlated light- and electron-microscope investigations using different fixation procedures. They are vesicles which contain an osmiophilic material of phenolic nature. Their content changes in appearence according to the fixative used. Osmiophilic deposits are often associated(More)
Extensions of submerged macrophyte and their variation in time along the littoral zone of Sirmione Peninsula, in the southern part of Lake Garda (Northern Italy), were investigated from imaging spectrometry. Two images with a ground resolution of 5 m were acquired by the Multispectral Infra-red and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) during summer 1994,(More)
Over 10 million people every year become infected by Treponema pallidum and develop syphilis, a disease with broad symptomatology that, due to the difficulty to eradicate the pathogen from the highly vascularized secondary sites of infection, is still treated with injections of penicillin. Unlike most other bacterial pathogens, T. pallidum infection(More)
The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) control cristae shape, thus affecting mitochondrial function and apoptosis. Whether and how they physically and functionally interact is unclear. Here, we provide evidence that OPA1 is epistatic to MICOS in the regulation of cristae shape. Proteomic analysis(More)
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