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Changes in the expression of type A receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) represent one of the mechanisms implicated in the development of tolerance to and dependence on ethanol. The impact of such changes on the function and pharmacological sensitivity of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) has remained unclear, however. Certain behavioral and(More)
Pregnancy is associated with changes in mood and anxiety level as well as with marked hormonal fluctuations. Increases in the brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids during pregnancy in rats are accompanied by changes in expression of subunits of the GABA type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) in the brain. Granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DGGCs) exhibit two(More)
Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains executing several functions, including GTP hydrolysis, kinase activity, and protein binding. Robust evidence suggests that LRRK2 acts at the synaptic site as a molecular hub(More)
Neuronal plasticity is achieved by regulation of the expression of genes for neurotransmitter receptors such as the type A receptor (GABA(A)R) for gamma-aminobutyric acid. We now show that two different rat neuronal populations in culture manifest distinct patterns of GABA(A)R plasticity in response to identical stimuli. Whereas prolonged exposure to(More)
The actions of ethanol on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are still highly controversial issues but it appears that some of its pharmacological effects may depend on receptor subunit composition. Prolonged ethanol exposure produces tolerance and dependence and its withdrawal alters GABA(A) receptor subunit gene expression and function.(More)
Several recent studies have proposed that astrocytes may contribute to neurogenesis, not only as a source of trophic substances regulating it, but also as stem cells themselves. In order to better understand these mechanisms, primary astrocyte cultures were established from human fetal brain. After 3-4 weeks in culture, astrocytes (about 95% GFAP+;(More)
Thiocolchicoside (TCC) is used clinically for its muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties, and it has been shown to interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAARs) and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the rat central nervous system. In contrast to a proposed agonistic action at these two types of(More)
A series of imidazopyridine acetamides were synthesized to evaluate the effects of structural changes at both central (CBRs) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs). These changes include the introduction of polar substituents or ionizable functional groups at the 2- and 8-position of the imidazopyridine skeleton. The results suggest that(More)
Expression of specific gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor subunit genes in neurons is affected by endogenous modulators of receptor function such as neuroactive steroids. Neuroactive steroids such as the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone might thus exert differential effects on GABA(A) receptor plasticity in neurons, likely accounting(More)
X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) affects 1% to 3% of the population. XLID subsumes several heterogeneous conditions, all of which are marked by cognitive impairment and reduced adaptive skills. XLID arises from mutations on the X chromosome; to date, 102 XLID genes have been identified. The proteins encoded by XLID genes are involved in higher brain(More)