Learn More
Naturally simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys do not progress to AIDS despite high-level virus replication. We previously showed that the fraction of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T cells is lower in sooty mangabeys compared to humans and macaques. Here we found that, after in vitro stimulation, sooty mangabey CD4(+) T cells fail to upregulate CCR5(More)
IL-21 regulates Th17 cell homeostasis, enhances the differentiation of memory B cells and antibody-secreting plasma cells, and promotes the maintenance of CD8(+) T-cell responses. In this study, we investigated the phenotype, function, and frequency of blood and intestinal IL-21-producing cells in nonhuman primates that are hosts of progressive (rhesus(More)
In pathogenic HIV and SIV infections of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs), preferential depletion of CD4⁺ Th17 cells correlates with mucosal immune dysfunction and disease progression. Interleukin (IL)-21 promotes differentiation of Th17 cells, long-term maintenance of functional CD8⁺ T cells, and differentiation of memory B cells and antibody-secreting(More)
Human adenovirus (AdHu)-based candidate AIDS vaccine can provide protection from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission and disease progression. However, their potential use may be limited by widespread preexisting immunity to the vector. In contrast, preexisting immunity to chimpanzee adenoviruses (AdC) is relatively rare. In this study, we(More)
HIV-1 infection is characterized by varying degrees of chronic immune activation and disruption of T-cell homeostasis, which impact the rate of disease progression. A deeper understanding of the factors that influence HIV-1-induced immunopathology and subsequent CD4(+) T-cell decline is critical to strategies aimed at controlling or eliminating the virus.(More)
In rhesus macaques (RMs), experimental depletion of CD4+ T-cells prior to SIV infection results in higher viremia and emergence of CD4-independent SIV-envelopes. In this study we used the rhesus recombinant anti-CD4 antibody CD4R1 to deplete RM CD4+ T-cells prior to SIVmac251 infection and investigate the sources of the increased viral burden and the(More)
Despite successful control of viremia, many HIV-infected individuals given antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit residual inflammation, which is associated with non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and may contribute to virus persistence during ART. Here, we investigated the effects of IL-21 administration on both inflammation and virus persistence in(More)
UNLABELLED Depletion of CD4(+) central memory T (TCM) cells dictates the tempo of progression to AIDS in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) both in the natural history of infection and in the context of vaccination. CD4(+) TCM cells of sooty mangabeys (SMs), a natural host for SIV in which infection is nonpathogenic, are less(More)
Recent studies have identified a subset of memory T cells with stem cell-like properties (T(SCM)) that include increased longevity and proliferative potential. In this study, we examined the dynamics of CD4(+) T(SCM) during pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RM) and nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SM). Whereas SIV-infected RM show(More)
In HIV/SIV-infected humans and rhesus macaques (RMs), a severe depletion of intestinal CD4(+) T-cells producing interleukin IL-17 and IL-22 associates with loss of mucosal integrity and chronic immune activation. However, little is known about the function of IL-17 and IL-22 producing cells during lentiviral infections. Here, we longitudinally determined(More)