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The lateral walls of the forebrain lateral ventricles are the richest source of stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. These stem cells give rise to new olfactory neurons that are renewed throughout life. The neurons originate in the subventricular zone (SVZ), migrate within the rostral extension (RE) of the SVZ along the rostral migratory stream (RMS)(More)
Adult neurogenesis in mammals is restricted to some brain regions, in contrast with other vertebrates in which the genesis of new neurons is more widespread in different areas of the nervous system. In the mammalian cerebellum, neurogenesis is thought to be limited to the early postnatal period, coinciding with end of the granule cell genesis and(More)
In the central nervous system cell migration is usually restricted to developmental periods and occurs mainly radially, following the radial glia. Nevertheless, in the subependymal layer of the adult rodent forebrain tangential migration of newly generated neuronal precursors directed to the olfactory bulb, which follow a well-defined pathway without(More)
The persistence of neurogenesis and structural plasticity was believed until recently to be restricted to lower vertebrates and songbirds. Nevertheless, it has now been ascertained that these phenomena can occur in the adult mammalian nervous system, at least in three distinct sites: the olfactory neuroepithelium of the nasal mucosa and two brain regions,(More)
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-N acetylneuraminic acid whose major carrier in vertebrates is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA serves as a potent negative regulator of cell interactions via its unusual biophysical properties. PSA on NCAM is developmentally regulated thus playing a prominent role in different forms of(More)
This review focuses on the nature and functional properties of stem cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). It has recently been shown that cell turnover, including neurons, does occur in the mature CNS, thanks to the persistence of precursor cells that possess the functional characteristics of bona-fide neural stem cells (NSCs) within(More)
Cell proliferation in the accessory olfactory bulb of the adult rat was analysed after systemic injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, detected immunocytochemically at different survival times and compared with proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining. As previously described in the main olfactory bulb, local cell proliferation was absent or very(More)
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is regarded as an embryonic germinal layer persisting at the end of cerebral cortex neurogenesis and capable of generating neuronal precursors throughout life. The two distinct compartments of the adult rodent forebrain SVZ, astrocytic glial tubes and chains of migrating cells, are not distinguishable in the embryonic and early(More)
Several studies support the idea that the polypeptides belonging to the family of insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an important role in brain development and continue to be produced in discrete areas of the adult brain. In numerous neuronal populations within the olfactory bulb, the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, the hippocampus, some(More)
In the brains of adult mammals long-distance cell migration of neuronal precursors is known to occur in the rostral migratory stream, involving chains of cells sliding into astrocytic glial tubes. By combining immunocytochemistry for polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal and glial antigens, endogenous and exogenously administered(More)