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Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1.10 variant surface glycoprotein was required to generate resistant (R) clones. In addition, in this strain transcription of a(More)
Trypanosomes are protozoan agents of major parasitic diseases such as Chagas' disease in South America and sleeping sickness of humans and nagana disease of cattle in Africa. They are transmitted to mammalian hosts by specific insect vectors. Their life cycle consists of a succession of differentiation and growth phases requiring regulated gene expression(More)
In the mammalian host, the cell surface of Trypanosoma brucei is protected by a variant surface glycoprotein that is anchored in the plasma membrane through covalent attachment of the COOH terminus to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The trypanosome also contains a phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) that cleaves this anchor and could thus potentially enable the(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin promoters of Trypanosoma brucei recruit an RNA polymerase sharing characteristic with polymerase I, but there is no sequence homology between them nor between these promoters and ribosomal promoters. We report the detailed characterization of the VSG promoter. The 70-bp region upstream of the(More)
African trypanosomes (the prototype of which is Trypanosoma brucei brucei) are protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of mammals. Human blood, unlike the blood of other mammals, has efficient trypanolytic activity, and this needs to be counteracted by these parasites. Resistance to this activity has arisen in two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei -(More)
Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a membrane-addressing domain. In lipid bilayer membranes, apolipoprotein L-I formed anion channels. In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the(More)
In the search for new diagnostic methods that would distinguish Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense, we have developed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets. The first primer set was derived from the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene of T. b. rhodesiense that confers resistance to lysis by normal human serum(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19-22-nt) single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules whose deregulation of expression can contribute to human disease including the multistep processes of carcinogenesis in human. Circulating miRNAs are emerging biomarkers in many diseases and cancers such as type 2 diabetes, pulmonary disease, colorectal cancer, and gastric(More)
Eukaryotic nuclei contain three classes of multisubunit DNA-directed RNA polymerase. At the core of each complex is a set of 12 highly conserved subunits of which five--RPB5, RPB6, RPB8, RPB10, and RPB12--are thought to be common to all three polymerase classes. Here, we show that four distantly related eukaryotic lineages (the higher plant and three(More)