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Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1.10 variant surface glycoprotein was required to generate resistant (R) clones. In addition, in this strain transcription of a(More)
Human sleeping sickness in east Africa is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The basis of this pathology is the resistance of these parasites to lysis by normal human serum (NHS). Resistance to NHS is conferred by a gene that encodes a truncated form of the variant surface glycoprotein termed serum resistance associated protein (SRA). We(More)
Trypanosomes are protozoan agents of major parasitic diseases such as Chagas' disease in South America and sleeping sickness of humans and nagana disease of cattle in Africa. They are transmitted to mammalian hosts by specific insect vectors. Their life cycle consists of a succession of differentiation and growth phases requiring regulated gene expression(More)
In the search for new diagnostic methods that would distinguish Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from T. b. brucei and T. b. gambiense, we have developed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets. The first primer set was derived from the serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene of T. b. rhodesiense that confers resistance to lysis by normal human serum(More)
Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a membrane-addressing domain. In lipid bilayer membranes, apolipoprotein L-I formed anion channels. In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the(More)
African trypanosomes (the prototype of which is Trypanosoma brucei brucei) are protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of mammals. Human blood, unlike the blood of other mammals, has efficient trypanolytic activity, and this needs to be counteracted by these parasites. Resistance to this activity has arisen in two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei -(More)
In addition to its effects on cognitive function, compelling evidence links sleep loss to alterations in the neuroendocrine, immune and inflammatory systems with potential negative public-health ramifications. The evidence to suggest that shorter sleep is associated with detrimental health outcomes comes from both epidemiological and experimental sleep(More)
The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes of Trypanosoma brucei are transcribed in telomeric loci termed VSG expression sites (ESs). Despite permanent initiation of transcription in most if not all of these multiple loci, RNA elongation is abortive except in bloodstream forms where full transcription up to the VSG occurs only in a single ES at a time.(More)
We report the characterization of a Trypanosoma brucei 75-kDa protein of the RGG (Arg-Gly-Gly) type, termed TBRGG1. Dicistronic and monocistronic transcripts of the TBRGG1 gene were produced by both alternative splicing and polyadenylation. TBRGG1 was found in two or three forms that differ in their electrophoretic mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gel(More)
The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin promoters of Trypanosoma brucei recruit an RNA polymerase sharing characteristic with polymerase I, but there is no sequence homology between them nor between these promoters and ribosomal promoters. We report the detailed characterization of the VSG promoter. The 70-bp region upstream of the(More)