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The current study examines the potential of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to use pollen as a food to sustain development and reproduction in the absence of insect prey. Three populations of H. axyridis were used in this study: a long-term laboratory population (since 1998) and a melanic and(More)
Genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exist in large numbers per cell but can be selected very rapidly as a result of unequal partitioning of mtDNA between germ cells during embryogenesis. However, empirical studies of this "bottlenecking" effect are rare because of the apparent scarcity of heteroplasmic individuals possessing more than one mtDNA(More)
A field-collected strain (MR-VL) of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, exhibited strong resistance to bifenthrin, dicofol and fenbutatin oxide in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain (LS-VL). The MR-VL strain was screened for cross-resistance with several currently used acaricides. Cross-resistance was detected with(More)
A Belgian field strain (MR-VP) of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) exhibits different levels of resistance to four frequently used METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-acaricides, i.e. tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben and fenazaquin. Resistance factors for these compounds were 184, 1547, 5971 and 35, respectively. A(More)
The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have(More)
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop(More)
A laboratory susceptible strain of Tetranychus urticae was selected with chlorfenapyr resulting in a resistant strain. After 12 cycles of exposure, the resistance ratio (RR) calculated from the LC50s of susceptible and selected strain was 580. The resistant strain was screened with 16 currently used acaricides for cross-resistance. Cross-resistance was(More)
The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds,(More)
The predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) is commercially available as a biological control agent of thrips and spider mites in greenhouse crops. Developmental duration and immature survival of I. degeneransreared on nine types of food (almond pollen, apple pollen, castor bean pollen, plum pollen, sweet pepper pollen, Tetranychus urticaeKoch,(More)
Because of its importance to the arthropod exoskeleton, chitin biogenesis is an attractive target for pest control. This point is demonstrated by the economically important benzoylurea compounds that are in wide use as highly specific agents to control insect populations. Nevertheless, the target sites of compounds that inhibit chitin biogenesis have(More)