Learn More
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab monotherapy (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight), as compared with glycoprotein 100, improved overall survival in a phase 3 study involving patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. We conducted a phase 3 study of ipilimumab (10 mg per kilogram) plus dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated metastatic(More)
BACKGROUND Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, can result in durable responses in patients with melanoma who have progressed after ipilimumab and BRAF inhibitors. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab compared with investigator's choice of chemotherapy (ICC) as a second-line or later-line treatment in patients(More)
Recent developments in the controlled movement of domain walls in magnetic nanowires by short pulses of spin-polarized current give promise of a nonvolatile memory device with the high performance and reliability of conventional solid-state memory but at the low cost of conventional magnetic disk drive storage. The racetrack memory described in this review(More)
BACKGROUND The combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK is hypothesized to improve clinical outcomes in patients with melanoma by preventing or delaying the onset of resistance observed with BRAF inhibitors alone. This randomized phase 3 study evaluated the combination of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib. METHODS We randomly(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and has shown promising activity in advanced melanoma. We aimed to ascertain the antitumour efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial in 66 centres from 12 countries. 217 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation is implicated in atherogenesis and plaque disruption. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4, a human homologue of drosophila Toll, play an important role in the innate and inflammatory signaling responses to microbial agents. To investigate a potential role of these receptors in atherosclerosis, we assessed the expression of TLR-2(More)
A missense mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has been identified as the defect responsible for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) hyporesponsiveness in C3H/HeJ mice. TLR-4 and TLR-2 have recently been implicated in LPS signaling in studies where these receptors were overexpressed in LPS non-responsive 293 human embryonic kidney(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 play important roles in innate immune responses to various microbial agents. We have previously shown that human dermal endothelial cells (HMEC) express TLR4, but very little TLR2, and respond to LPS, but not to Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein, unless transfected with TLR2. Here we report that HMEC are(More)
BACKGROUND On the basis of data from a phase 2 trial that compared the checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab at doses of 0.3 mg, 3 mg, and 10 mg per kilogram of body weight in patients with advanced melanoma, this phase 3 trial evaluated ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram in patients who had undergone complete resection of stage III melanoma. METHODS(More)
Adult mastocytosis is an incurable clonal disease associated with c-KIT mutations, mostly in exon 17 (D816V). In contrast, pediatric mastocytosis often spontaneously regresses and is considered a reactive disease. Previous studies on childhood mastocytosis assessed only a few patients and focused primarily on codon 816 mutations, with various results. In(More)