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Glutamate, released at a majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system, depolarizes neurons by acting at specific receptors. Its action is terminated by removal from the synaptic cleft mostly via Na(+)-dependent uptake systems located on both neurons and astrocytes. Here we report that glutamate, in addition to its receptor-mediated actions(More)
Oligodendroglia support axon survival and function through mechanisms independent of myelination, and their dysfunction leads to axon degeneration in several diseases. The cause of this degeneration has not been determined, but lack of energy metabolites such as glucose or lactate has been proposed. Lactate is transported exclusively by monocarboxylate(More)
Astrocytes play a critical role in the regulation of brain metabolic responses to activity. One detailed mechanism proposed to describe the role of astrocytes in some of these responses has come to be known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH). Although controversial, the original concept of a coupling mechanism between neuronal(More)
Despite striking advances in functional brain imaging, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the signals detected by these techniques are still largely unknown. The basic physiological principle of functional imaging is represented by the tight coupling existing between neuronal activity and the associated local increase in both blood flow and(More)
Mounting evidence from in vitro experiments indicates that lactate is an efficient energy substrate for neurons and that it may significantly contribute to maintain synaptic transmission, particularly during periods of intense activity. Since lactate does not cross the blood-brain barrier easily, blood-borne lactate cannot be a significant source. In vitro(More)
Recent evidence suggests that lactate could be a preferential energy substrate transferred from astrocytes to neurons. This would imply the presence of specific transporters for lactate on both cell types. We have investigated the immunohistochemical localization of two monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in the adult mouse brain. Using specific(More)
The transport of lactate is an essential part of the concept of metabolic coupling between neurons and glia. Lactate transport in primary cultures of astroglial cells was shown to be mediated by a single saturable transport system with a Km value for lactate of 7.7 mM and a Vmax value of 250 nmol/(min x mg of protein). Transport was inhibited by a variety(More)
In vertebrates, the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Two distinct subunits combine to form the five tetrameric isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase. The LDH-5 subunit (muscle type) has higher maximal velocity (Vmax) and is present in glycolytic tissues, favoring the formation of lactate from pyruvate.(More)