Luc L. Lavier

Learn More
Although the formation of subduction zones plays a central role in plate evolution, the processes and geological settings that lead to the initiation of subduction are poorly understood. Using a visco-elastoplastic model, we show that a fracture zone could be converted into a self-sustaining subduction zone after approximately 100 km of convergence. Modeled(More)
Where continental plates break apart, slip along multiple normal faults provides the required space for the Earth's crust to thin and subside. After initial rifting, however, the displacement on normal faults observed at the sea floor seems not to match the inferred extension. Here we show that crustal thinning can be accomplished in such extensional(More)
We employ 2-D thermo-mechanical modelling to study possible mechanisms for generating large-scale crustal magmas in the Altiplano^Puna region of the Central Andes. The peak of ignimbrite activity in the late Miocene and Pliocene is associated in space and time with tectonic shortening and plateau uplift. A seismic low-velocity zone and other geophysical(More)
Lithospheric necking and magmatic intrusion are thought to be the primary processes responsible for narrow continental rifts. There is much less agreement as to the cause of wide continental rifts. We attempt to shed light on this problem using three approaches. First, we derive approximate relations between the change in force needed for extension and(More)
Basal crevasses may play an important precursory role in determining both the location and propagation of rifts and iceberg dimensions. For example, icebergs calved recently from Thwaites Glacier, Antarctica, have the same width as surface undulations, strengthening the connection between basal crevasses, rifting and calving. We explore a novel method for(More)
Abyssal-hill-bounding faults that pervade the oceanic crust are the most common tectonic feature on the surface of the Earth. The recognition that these faults form at plate spreading centres came with the plate tectonic revolution. Recent observations reveal a large range of fault sizes and orientations; numerical models of plate separation, dyke intrusion(More)
Histories of vertical crustal motions at convergent margins offer fundamental insights into the relationship between interplate slip and permanent deformation. Moreover, past abrupt motions are proxies for potential tsunamigenic earthquakes and benefit hazard assessment. Well-dated records are required to understand the relationship between past earthquakes(More)
[1] We present the first model results showing that some core complex detachment faults are strong and that their strength has to be in a narrow range to allow certain extensional structures to develop. The structures we simulate are kilometer-scale “rider blocks” that are particularly well observed on some oceanic core complexes as well as continental(More)