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The role of biotic interactions in shaping plant flowering phenology has long been controversial; plastic responses to the abiotic environment, limited precision of biological clocks and inconsistency of selection pressures have generally been emphasized to explain phenological variation. However, part of this variation is heritable and selection analyses(More)
The Orchidaceae characteristically contain a very large number of species that attract pollinators but do not offer them any form of reward in return for visitation. Such a strategy is highly unusual in the plant kingdom. We conducted experiments in order to manipulate the reward strategy of the rewardless bumble-bee-pollinated orchid Barlia robertiana by(More)
The orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable and dramatic flower-color polymorphism, with both yellow- and purple-flowered individuals present in natural populations throughout the range of the species in Europe. The evolutionary significance of flower-color polymorphisms found in many rewardless orchid species has been discussed at length, but the(More)
More than one-third of orchid species do not provide their pollinators with either pollen or nectar rewards. Floral mimicry could explain the maintenance of these rewardless orchid species, but most rewardless orchids do not appear to have a rewarding plant that they mimic specifically. We tested the hypothesis that floral mimicry can occur through(More)
Plant reproductive success within a patch may depend on plant aggregation through pollinator attraction. For rewardless plants that lack rewards for pollinators, reproductive success may rely strongly on the learning abilities of pollinators. These abilities depend on relative co-flowering rewarding and rewardless plant species spatial distributions. We(More)
The evolution of plants that provide no form of reward for their pollinators is puzzling because they receive low numbers of pollinator visits and so have low reproductive success. To predict the evolutionary dynamics of empty morphs within a plant population, we modeled different foraging strategies that pollinators could use to avoid them. We predicted(More)
Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to(More)
We investigated the reproductive system of the threatened taxon Dombeya acutangula ssp. acutangula Cav. (Sterculiaceae), an endemic tree of the Mascarene archipelago (Indian Ocean). A controlled crossing experiment was performed in two natural populations located in the remnants of the low-elevation dry forest on the island of La Réunion. Active(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In the Mascarenes, a young oceanic archipelago composed of three main islands, the Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) have diversified extensively with a high endemism rate. With the exception of the genus Trochetia, Mascarene Dombeyoideae are described as dioecious whereas Malagasy and African species are considered to be monocline, species with(More)
Among rewardless orchids, pollinator sampling behavior has been suggested to drive a positive relationship between population phenotypic variability and absolute reproductive success, and hence population fitness. We tested this hypothesis by constructing experimental arrays using the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, which is dimorphic for corolla(More)