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The role of biotic interactions in shaping plant flowering phenology has long been controversial; plastic responses to the abiotic environment, limited precision of biological clocks and inconsistency of selection pressures have generally been emphasized to explain phenological variation. However, part of this variation is heritable and selection analyses(More)
The orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable and dramatic flower-color polymorphism, with both yellow- and purple-flowered individuals present in natural populations throughout the range of the species in Europe. The evolutionary significance of flower-color polymorphisms found in many rewardless orchid species has been discussed at length, but the(More)
More than one-third of orchid species do not provide their pollinators with either pollen or nectar rewards. Floral mimicry could explain the maintenance of these rewardless orchid species, but most rewardless orchids do not appear to have a rewarding plant that they mimic specifically. We tested the hypothesis that floral mimicry can occur through(More)
Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to(More)
Many plant species reward their pollinators, whereas some species, particularly among orchids, do not. Similarity of floral cues between co-flowering species influences how rapidly pollinators learn to avoid deceptive plants. This learning process, which affects the reproductive success of deceptive plants, may additionally depend on relative timing of(More)
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