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The role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in the regulation of dopamine D1A receptor responsiveness is poorly understood. To explore the potential role played by the GRKs in the regulation of the rat dopamine D1A receptor, we performed whole cell phosphorylation experiments and cAMP assays in 293 cells cotransfected with the receptor alone or(More)
We report the cloning of a rat cDNA encoding a functional dopamine transporter. This cDNA, derived from an intron-containing gene, encodes a protein of 620 amino acids. Hydropathicity analysis of the protein sequence suggests the presence of 12 putative transmembrane domains. The protein displays considerable identity with transporters for noradrenaline and(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been proposed to function as a fuel gauge to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic(More)
Protein synthesis, in particular peptide-chain elongation, consumes cellular energy. Anoxia activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, see ), resulting in the inhibition of biosynthetic pathways to conserve ATP. In anoxic rat hepatocytes or in hepatocytes treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, AMPK was activated and protein(More)
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to enhance cell survival, differentiation and protein turnover in muscle, mainly activating phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases/ extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. Since these two pathways are related to neuronal(More)
Multiple D1 dopaminergic receptor subtypes have been postulated on the basis of pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic studies. We describe the isolation and characterization of a rat gene encoding a dopamine receptor that is structurally and functionally similar to the D1 dopamine receptor. The coding region, which is intronless, encodes a protein of(More)
Heart failure is a progressive muscular disorder leading to a deterioration of the heart characterized by a contractile dysfunction and a chronic energy deficit. As a consequence, the failing heart is unable to meet the normal metabolic and energy needs of the body. The transition between compensated left ventricular hypertrophy and the de-compensated heart(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key cellular sensor of energy, regulates metabolic homeostasis and plays a protective role in the ischemic or diabetic heart. Stimulation of cardiac glucose uptake contributes to this AMPK-mediated protection. The small-molecule AMPK activator A-769662, which binds and directly activates AMPK, has recently been(More)
The main role of insulin in the heart under physiological conditions is obviously the regulation of substrate utilization. Indeed, insulin promotes glucose uptake and its utilization via glycolysis. In addition, insulin participates in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular tonicity. Significant advancements have(More)
Metformin is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is interest in actions of the drug of potential relevance to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of action remain elusive. Convincing data place energy metabolism at the center of metformin's mechanism of(More)