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It is now becoming evident that the liver has an important role in the control of whole body metabolism of energy nutrients. In this review, we focus on recent findings showing that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in the control of hepatic metabolism. AMPK integrates nutritional and hormonal signals to promote energy balance by(More)
Metformin is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is interest in actions of the drug of potential relevance to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of action remain elusive. Convincing data place energy metabolism at the center of metformin's mechanism of(More)
Protein synthesis, in particular peptide-chain elongation, consumes cellular energy. Anoxia activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, see ), resulting in the inhibition of biosynthetic pathways to conserve ATP. In anoxic rat hepatocytes or in hepatocytes treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, AMPK was activated and protein(More)
The role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in the regulation of dopamine D1A receptor responsiveness is poorly understood. To explore the potential role played by the GRKs in the regulation of the rat dopamine D1A receptor, we performed whole cell phosphorylation experiments and cAMP assays in 293 cells cotransfected with the receptor alone or(More)
Multiple D1 dopaminergic receptor subtypes have been postulated on the basis of pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic studies. We describe the isolation and characterization of a rat gene encoding a dopamine receptor that is structurally and functionally similar to the D1 dopamine receptor. The coding region, which is intronless, encodes a protein of(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been proposed to function as a fuel gauge to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic(More)
Certain amino acids, like glutamine and leucine, induce an anabolic response in liver. They activate p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) involved in protein and fatty acids synthesis, respectively. In contrast, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses the energy state of the cell and becomes activated under(More)
The activation of monocytes involves a stimulation of glycolysis, release of potent inflammatory mediators, and alterations in gene expression. All of these processes are known to be further increased under hypoxic conditions. The activated monocytes express inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK-2), which synthesizes fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, a(More)
Fru-2,6-P2 (fructose 2,6-bisphosphate) is a signal molecule that controls glycolysis. Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, inroads have been made towards the understanding of the structure-function relationships in PFK-2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase)/FBPase-2 (fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase), the homodimeric bifunctional enzyme that catalyses the synthesis(More)
The main role of insulin in the heart under physiological conditions is obviously the regulation of substrate utilization. Indeed, insulin promotes glucose uptake and its utilization via glycolysis. In addition, insulin participates in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular tonicity. Significant advancements have(More)