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Exocytosis, the fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane to allow release of the contents of the vesicles into the extracellular environment, and endocytosis, the internalization of these vesicles to allow another round of secretion, are coupled. It is, however, uncertain whether exocytosis and endocytosis are tightly coupled, such that(More)
Chloride-selective ion channels were measured from isolated rat liver nuclei. Single ion channel currents were recorded in both “nuclear-attached” and in excised patches in the insideout configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Two types of chloride conductance were defined, a large conductance (150 pS;i Cl.N ) channel with complex kinetics and multiple(More)
Cysteine string protein alpha (CSPalpha)--an abundant synaptic vesicle protein that contains a DNA-J domain characteristic of Hsp40 chaperones--is thought to regulate Ca2+ channels and/or synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We now show that, in young mice, deletion of CSPalpha does not impair survival and causes no significant changes in presynaptic Ca2+ currents(More)
Low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein result in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a severe genetic disease characterized by motor impairment and premature lethality. Although SMN is a ubiquitous protein, motor neurons are much more vulnerable to low levels of SMN than other cells. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of SMA, we have compared(More)
Low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein result in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a severe genetic disease characterized by motor impairment and premature lethality. Although SMN is a ubiquitous protein, motor neurons are much more vulnerable to low levels of SMN than other cells. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of SMA, we have compared(More)
Cysteine string protein (CSP) alpha is an abundant synaptic vesicle protein that contains a DNA-J domain characteristic of Hsp40-type cochaperones. Previous studies showed that deletion of CSPalpha in mice leads to massive lethal neurodegeneration but did not clarify how the neurodegeneration affects specific subpopulations of neurons. Here, we analyzed the(More)
F-actin bundling plastin 3 (PLS3) is a fully protective modifier of the neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common genetic cause of infant death. The generation of a conditional PLS3-over-expressing mouse and its breeding into an SMA background allowed us to decipher the exact biological mechanism underlying PLS3-mediated SMA(More)
We have studied the functional interaction of dopamine with alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes by measuring intracellular Ca2+ levels in pineal cells, a cell type where adrenoceptors are well characterized. We show that dopamine induces transient intracellular Ca2+ signals in only 70% of cells responding to phenylephrine. Dopamine-induced Ca2+ signals desensitise(More)
Synchronous neurotransmitter release is a highly regulated process that takes place at specializations at the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). The relationships between AZs, quantal release, and vesicle replenishment are not well understood in a mature synapse. We have measured the number, distribution, and other properties of AZs in mouse(More)