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OBJECTIVES Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were widely used for industrial purposes and consumer products, but because of their toxicity, production was banned by most industrialised countries in the late 1970s. In eastern Slovakia, they were produced until 1985. During 2002-04, a birth cohort of mothers (n = 1057) residing in two Slovak districts was enrolled at(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, for which animal studies demonstrate immunotoxic effects, including thymic atrophy and suppressed immune responses; human investigations of similar end points are sparse. The thymus is essential for the differentiation and maturation of T-cell lymphocytes. OBJECTIVES The(More)
1. There is a variety of quantitative analytical data regarding the total concentrations of heavy metals in human placentae. However, little is known about sites of metal accumulation in the placental tissue structural zones in relation to the environment. In this study, the lead and the nickel particulate deposits in the placental chorionic plate, the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite experimental evidence that lactational exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can impact health, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. Inconsistency across studies may reflect the inability of current methods to estimate children's blood levels during specific periods of susceptibility. OBJECTIVES We developed a(More)
Dental amalgam is a mercury-based filling containing approximately 50% of metallic mercury (Hg(0)). Human placenta does not represent a real barrier to the transport of Hg(0); hence, fetal exposure occurs as a result of maternal exposure to Hg, with possible subsequent neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants. This study represents a substudy of the(More)
The aim was to determine half-life of six most abundant PCB congeners in the body of early adolescents. In 304 environmentally exposed children, PCB serum concentration was determined at the age of 8 and 12years. Half-life was determined for each child assuming exponential decrease or for the whole cohort using multiple regression. Results obtained by both(More)
Recently, it has become clear that the complexity of environmental health issues requires an approach that takes into account the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. An urgent issue that has surfaced is the need for accurate tools to better describe exposure characterization to environmental chemicals. By including human(More)
BACKGROUND Policies on waste disposal in Europe are heterogeneous and rapidly changing, with potential health implications that are largely unknown. We conducted a health impact assessment of landfilling and incineration in three European countries: Italy, Slovakia and England. METHODS A total of 49 (Italy), 2 (Slovakia), and 11 (England) incinerators(More)
The chemical composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is not uniform throughout the world, and these contaminants contain many structurally different lipophilic compounds. In a well-defined study cohort in the Slovak Republic, the POP chemicals present in the peripheral blood of exposed children were chemically analyzed. The(More)