Learn More
New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis integrating magnetic resonance image assessment with clinical and other paraclinical methods were introduced in 2001. The "McDonald Criteria" have been extensively assessed and used since 2001. New evidence and consensus now strengthen the role of these criteria in the multiple sclerosis diagnostic workup to(More)
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes into the CNS. As matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate the passage of leukocytes across matrix barriers, we tested the hypothesis that targeting MMPs could attenuate neuro-inflammation. We report that minocycline, a widely used generic drug with a good safety record, inhibited MMP(More)
The capacity of minocycline to alleviate disease for several neurological disorders in animals is increasingly being recognised. Indeed, that one drug alone can attenuate the severity of disease in stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal-cord injury, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is astounding. In this review, we(More)
The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain. There is strong circumstantial evidence to indicate it is an autoimmune complex trait. Risks for first degree relatives are increased some 20 fold over the general population. Twin studies have shown monozygotic concordance rates of 25-30% compared to 4% for dizygotic twins and siblings. Studies of(More)
BACKGROUND Unemployment is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with loss of income and impaired health related quality of life. This study determined variables associated with unemployment and risk factors for the development of unemployment in people with MS. METHODS Ninety-six patients who were under age 65 and participated(More)
The objective of the current study was to investigate whether minocycline improves the effect of an existing multiple sclerosis (MS) medication, interferon-beta, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. When used at sub-optimal doses, neither medication affected EAE but their combination at these doses led to the significant alleviation(More)
The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Although the genetic susceptibility to MS has been investigated in great detail, reports describing epigenetic changes in the context of MS have only recently appeared. Epigenetic changes to DNA influence gene expression without altering the underlying DNA(More)
We report a trial of minocycline in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that evaluates safety and estimates its effect on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten subjects with active RRMS received oral mi-nocycline 100mg twice daily for 6 months after a 3-month run-in period. A 30-month treatment extension is ongoing. Clinical and(More)
BACKGROUND Once weekly interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis (OWIMS) demonstrated modest, but significant, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) benefit of once-weekly (qw) interferon (IFN) beta-1a at 48 weeks, but no significant effect on relapses. OBJECTIVE An OWIMS extension permitted assessment of longer-term efficacy/safety of qw IFN beta-1a in(More)
It has been suggested that interferons (IFN) may cause depression de novo or worsen pre-existing depression. Depression data collected using validated instruments from individual clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, however, have consistently failed to identify an association. In this study, pooled data from 6 controlled studies and 17 noncontrolled(More)