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Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis are essential for the alternating life cycle of flowering plants between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte generations. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the world's major staple food, and manipulation of pollen fertility is particularly important for the demands to increase rice grain yield. Towards a better(More)
AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes play essential roles in flower development, but whether and how they work with floral organ identity genes remain less understood. Here, we describe interactions of the rice (Oryza sativa) AGL6 gene MADS6 with other rice floral homeotic genes in flower development. Genetic analyses revealed that MADS6 specifies the identity of the(More)
Grass plants develop unique floral patterns that determine grain production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the specification of floral organ identities and meristem determinacy, including the interaction among floral homeotic genes, remains largely unknown in grasses. Here, we report the interactions of rice (Oryza sativa) floral homeotic(More)
Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes are widely distributed in higher plants and play important roles in the regulation of many secondary metabolites at the transcriptional level. In this study, a chrysanthemum subgroup 4 R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, designated CmMYB1, was isolated through screening chrysanthemum EST (expressed sequence tag)(More)
The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate the immunity efficacy of the DNA multivalent vaccine pVIVO2SjFABP-23. The vaccine was constructed and produced as follows. Forty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups designated pVIVO2, pVIVO2Sj23, pVIVO2SjFABP and pVIVO2SjFABP-23. Each mouse was immunized with 100 μg of the corresponding plasmid DNA(More)
ICE (Inducer of CBF Expression) family genes play an important role in the regulation of cold tolerance pathways. In an earlier study, we isolated the gene CdICE1 from Chrysanthemum dichrum and demonstrated that freezing tolerance was enhanced by CdICE1 overexpression. Therefore, we sought to determine the mechanism by which ICE1 family genes participate in(More)
PAQR3 is a member of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family and was recently characterized as a spatial regulator that negatively modulates Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. However, little is known about the physiological functions of PAQR3 in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancers. The function of PAQR3 in colorectal cancer development in mice(More)
In this paper, the fraction transformation and recovering of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS) residues, derived from supercritical water process, was investigated by extraction and precipitation processes. In addition, the form of heavy metals existing during the recovery process is also discussed. First, P in the solid residues was recovered by acid(More)
Many password authentication schemes have been proposed for electronic commerce environment; however, none of them is secure enough. Hwang and Yeh proposed an improvement on the Peyravian-Zunic password authentication scheme including protected password transmission and password change. We demonstrate that the Hwang-Yeh scheme is also vulnerable to several(More)
A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Jinba’ during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get(More)