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In this paper, a closed-form suboptimal maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) metric and its low-complexity version are proposed for free space optical communications systems operating over lognormal fading and high signal-to-noise channel. This algorithm provides a simplification to the algorithm reported by Riediger et al. In comparison, firstly,(More)
Hardware Trojans are a significant security threat due to the globalization of hardware design and supply chain. We demonstrate a new type of hardware Trojan hidden behind internal don’t care conditions. The proposed Trojans can pass through formal equivalence checking; they may reside after logic synthesis optimizations; and they are resilient to switching(More)
This paper talks about the problems in particle swarm optimization (PSO), including local optimum and difficulty in improving solution accuracy by fine tuning. We presents a new variation of Adaptive Tribe-PSO model where nonlinear updating of inertia weight and a particle’s fitness with TribePSO model are combined to improve the speed of convergence as(More)
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