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There are both reproductive and nonreproductive behavioral differences between men and women. Brain regions involved in determining sexual behavior have been reported to differ between the sexes. Nonreproductive, cognitive functional differences between sexes might be reflected in higher-order cortical structural dimorphisms, which have not previously been(More)
How an insect evolves to become a successful herbivore is of profound biological and practical importance. Herbivores are often adapted to feed on a specific group of evolutionarily and biochemically related host plants, but the genetic and molecular bases for adaptation to plant defense compounds remain poorly understood. We report the first whole-genome(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors hypothesized that cortical gray matter volume reduction in schizophrenia is greatest in the heteromodal association cortex. This area comprises a highly integrated, reciprocally interconnected system that coordinates higher order cortical functions. METHOD Total brain and regional gray matter volumes were calculated in 46(More)
Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), which can be induced by alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), has an antiviral activity against the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The mechanism of this antiviral activity remains poorly understood. Here, we report that MyD88 inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells and in a mouse model. The knockdown of(More)
We develop a method, which utilizes a combined atomic force microscope (AFM)/fluorescence microscope and small copy number polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to affinity-select individual aptamer species in a single cycle from a small pool of random-sequence oligonucleotides (oligos). In this method, a library of small beads, each of which is functionalized(More)
The ability to self-assemble one-dimensional DNA building blocks into two- and three-dimensional nanostructures via DNA/RNA nanotechnology has led to broad applications in bioimaging, basic biological mechanism studies, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. However, the cellular uptake of most nucleic acid nanostructures is dependent on passive delivery or(More)
In this study, the possibility of establishing a dual-species biofilm from a bacterium with a high biofilm-forming capability and a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (3,5-DNBA)-degrading bacterium, Comamonas testosteroni A3, was investigated. Our results showed that the combinations of strain A3 with each of five strains with a high biofilm-forming capability(More)
PURPOSE To describe a quantitative MR imaging segmentation method for determination of the volume of cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter in living human brain, and to determine the method's reliability. METHODS We developed a computer method that allows rapid, user-friendly determination of cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter(More)
We have developed a photoresponsive DNA-cross-linked hydrogel that can be photoregulated by two wavelengths with a reversible sol-gel conversion. This photoinduced conversion can be further utilized for precisely controllable encapsulation and release of multiple loads. Specifically, photosensitive azobenzene moieties are incorporated into DNA strands as(More)
Researchers increasingly envision an important role for artificial biochemical circuits in biological engineering, much like electrical circuits in electrical engineering. Similar to electrical circuits, which control electromechanical devices, biochemical circuits could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor(More)