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This study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rats with Parkinson's disease. rTMS was given to rats with Parkinson's disease induced by 6-OHDA, daily for 4 weeks to examine the protective effects. Rotational test showed that rTMS significantly(More)
OBJECTIVES Human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells are formed from amnioblasts, separated from the epiblast at about the eighth day after fertilization. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular transplantation of HAE cells on Parkinson's disease (PD) rats. METHODS A PD rat model was induced by 6-OHDA injections.(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) has been increasingly implicated in the formation and maintenance of various forms of behavioral and synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence has linked striatal NMDA function to the adverse effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease. The subcellular distribution and phosphorylation of NMDA subunit,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the systemic administration of high dose erythropoietin (EPO) in a 6‑hydroxydopamine (6‑OHDA)‑ induced rat model. Rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups 1‑4 were administered daily EPO doses of 0; 2,500; 5,000 and 10,000 U/kg via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) for 5 days. The EPO(More)
BACKGROUND Levodopa is the gold standard in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term levodopa replacement therapy is accompanied by abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), known as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Until now, the precise mechanisms of LID were only partially understood. Previous studies have shown that continuous(More)
BACKGROUND Levodopa remains the most effective drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term levodopa treatment is associated with the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), which has hampered its use for PD treatment. The mechanisms of LID are only partially understood. A previous study showed that KN-93, a(More)
Tumor invasion and metastasis are closely associated with epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT refers to epithelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions that are specific to mesenchymal transition. Curcumin inhibits EMT progression via Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is a conservative EMT‑related signaling pathway that is(More)
The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) has been used as an effective drug for treating dopamine depletion-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term administration of L-DOPA produces motor complications. L-DOPA has also been found to modify the two key signaling cascades, protein kinase A/dopamine- and cAMP-regulated(More)
L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) is the gold standard for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but long-term therapy is associated with the emergence of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). In the present study, L-dopa and benserazide were loaded by poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (LBM), which can release levodopa and benserazide(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The dopamine precursor, levodopa, remains the most effective and common treatment for this disorder. However, long-term administration of levodopa is known to induce characteristic dyskinesia, and molecular mechanisms underlying(More)