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To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
Genetic studies identified Itch, which is a homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus (Hect) domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is disrupted in non-agouti lethal mice or Itchy mice. Itch-deficiency results in abnormal immune responses and constant itching in the skin. Here, Itch was shown to associate with Notch, a protein(More)
Nine-day-old harlequin (Hq) mice carrying the hypomorphic apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)(Hq) mutation expressed 60% less AIF, 18% less respiratory chain complex I and 30% less catalase than their wild-type (Wt) littermates. Compared with Wt, the infarct volume after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was reduced by 53 and 43% in male (YX(Hq)) and female (X(Hq)X(Hq))(More)
Important aspects of cell cycle regulation are the checkpoints, which respond to a variety of cellular stresses to inhibit cell cycle progression and act as protective mechanisms to ensure genomic integrity. An increasing number of tumor suppressors are being demonstrated to have roles in checkpoint mechanisms, implying that checkpoint dysfunction is likely(More)
At harvest traits such as seed weight are the sum of development and responses to stresses over the growing season and particularly during the reproductive phase of growth. The aim here was to measure quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the seed weight from early development to drying post harvest. One hundred forty-three F(5) derived recombinant(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of β cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of β cells. In this(More)
The major involvement of chemokines and proteolytic enzymes has recently been discovered in the mobilization process. Here, we report that the degradation of BM stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1) by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is important in G-CSF-mediated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) mobilization. In this study, the SDF-1(More)
The large majority of structural MRI studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated volumetric changes in chronic medicated patients in whom course of illness and treatment effects may impact anatomic measurements. Further, in few studies, separate measurements of cortical thickness and surface area have been performed that reflect different(More)
Benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxide (B[c] PhDE) is well known as an important environmental chemical carcinogen that preferentially modifies DNA in adenine residues. However, the molecular mechanism by which B[c]PhDE induces tumorigenesis is not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate that DNA mismatch repair (MMR), a genome maintenance(More)
Treatment of severe arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities (ASOLE) remains a clinical challenge. To develop a more effective approach, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of autologous transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in 5 patients with ASOLE. The patients received recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating(More)