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To further understand the roles played by the essential phosphoinositide PI4,5P(2), we have used a synthetic lethal analysis, which systematically combined the mss4(ts) mutation, partially defective in PI4P 5-kinase activity, with each of approximately 4700 deletion mutations. This genomic screening technique uncovered numerous new candidate effectors and(More)
Degeneration of medium spiny GABA neurons in the basal ganglia underlies motor dysfunction in Huntington's disease (HD), which presently lacks effective therapy. In this study, we have successfully directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to enriched populations of DARPP32-expressing forebrain GABA neurons. Transplantation of these human forebrain GABA(More)
Recent advances with the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system promise an improved approach to genome editing. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in model organisms, such as zebrafish, are little studied. Here, we report that RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease efficiently facilitates genome editing in(More)
The lipid raft membrane has been shown to be the site of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication. The mechanism of formation of the replication complex is not clear. We show here that the formation of the HCV RNA replication complex on lipid raft (detergent-resistant membranes) requires interactions among the HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins and may be(More)
The efficacy and safety of lenalidomide maintenance therapy after ASCT in patients with MM has been in question. In order to address the issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of two randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies encompassing 1074 patients treated with lenalidomide or placebo maintenance therapy after ASCT. The predominant clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is related to the risk of cardiovascular events in the general population. An association between changes in cIMT and cardiovascular risk is frequently assumed but has rarely been reported. Our aim was to test this association. METHODS We identified general population studies that assessed cIMT at least(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses replicate through reverse transcription, a process in which the single stranded RNA of the viral genome is converted to a double stranded DNA. The virally encoded reverse transcriptase (RT) mediates reverse transcription through DNA polymerase and RNase H activities. Conversion of the plus(More)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is the principal Ca2+-release channel in excitable cells, whereas the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor (InsP3R) is primarily responsible for Ca2+ release in non-excitable cells, including epithelia. RyR also is expressed in a number of non-excitable cell types, but is thought to serve as an auxiliary or alternative(More)
New hybrid species might be expected to show patterns of gene expression intermediate to those shown by parental species. "Transcriptomic shock" may also occur, in which gene expression is disrupted; this may be further modified by whole genome duplication (causing allopolyploidy). "Shock" can include instantaneous partitioning of gene expression between(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are modulated by cytokines present in the tumor microenvironment, play an important role in tumor progression. It is well documented that inflammation is an important part of the tumor microenvironment, so we investigated whether stimulation of MSCs by inflammatory cytokines would contribute to their ability to promote(More)