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Excitatory synapses in the brain exhibit a remarkable degree of functional plasticity, which largely reflects changes in the number of synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). However, mechanisms involved in recruiting AMPARs to synapses are unknown. Here we use hippocampal slice cultures and biolistic gene(More)
Functional expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in cerebellar granule cells requires stargazin, a member of a large family of four-pass transmembrane proteins. Here, we define a family of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which comprise stargazin, gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, but(More)
Normal brain function requires that the overall synaptic activity in neural circuits be kept constant. Long-term alterations of neural activity lead to homeostatic regulation of synaptic strength by a process known as synaptic scaling. The molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic scaling are largely unknown. Here, we report that all-trans retinoic acid(More)
Presynaptic and postsynaptic differentiation occurs at axodendritic contacts between CNS neurons. Synaptic adhesion mediated by synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM) and beta-neurexins/neuroligins triggers presynaptic differentiation. The signals that trigger postsynaptic differentiation are, however, unknown. Here we report that beta-neurexin expressed(More)
Available methods for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) into neurons are often cumbersome, slow, and variable. Alternatively, human fibroblasts can be directly converted into induced neuronal (iN) cells. However, with present techniques conversion is inefficient, synapse formation is limited, and only(More)
Eph receptors, the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and their membrane bound ligands, the ephrins, are involved in multiple developmental and adult processes within and outside of the nervous system. Bi-directional signaling from both the receptor and the ligand is initiated by ephrin-Eph binding upon cell-cell contact, and involves interactions(More)
Blockade of synaptic activity induces homeostatic plasticity, in part by stimulating synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid (RA), which in turn increases AMPA receptor synthesis. However, the synaptic signal that triggers RA synthesis remained unknown. Using multiple activity-blockade protocols that induce homeostatic synaptic plasticity, here we show that RA(More)
Homeostatic plasticity is thought to play an important role in maintaining the stability of neuronal circuits. During one form of homeostatic plasticity, referred to as synaptic scaling, activity blockade leads to a compensatory increase in synaptic transmission by stimulating in dendrites the local translation and synaptic insertion of the AMPA receptor(More)
Homeostatic synaptic plasticity adjusts the strength of synapses during global changes in neural activity, thereby stabilizing the overall activity of neural networks. Suppression of synaptic activity increases synaptic strength by inducing synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), which activates postsynaptic synthesis of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in(More)
Chronic inactivation of a neural network is known to induce homeostatic upregulation of synaptic strength, a form of synaptic plasticity that differs from Hebbian-type synaptic plasticity in that it is not input-specific, but involves all synapses of an individual neuron. However, it is unclear how homeostatic and Hebbian synaptic plasticity interact in the(More)