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Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts. This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994. The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact that at the start of this period there was an economic(More)
Life-threatening medical emergencies are an infrequent but regular occurrence on the football field. Proper prevention strategies, emergency medical planning and timely access to emergency equipment are required to prevent catastrophic outcomes. In a continuing commitment to player safety during football, this paper presents the FIFA Medical Emergency Bag(More)
The traditional representation of the populations used in evolutionary algorithms raises two types of problems: the loss of genetic diversity during the evolutionary process and evaluation of redundant individuals. In [11, 12] the authors propose a new formal model (PLATO) for multiset representation of individuals and their populations which applied to(More)
Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank Prof. Luís Correia for giving me this opportunity to share his knowledge and learn from it. I thank him not only for his singular professional orientation, but also for his constant help, advice and sharing of knowledge, which became a reference along this period. And the dedicated and disciplined(More)
This chapter presents SMuGA, an integration of symbiogenesis with the Multiset Genetic Algorithm (MuGA). The symbiogenetic approach used here is based on the host-parasite model with the novelty of varying the length of parasites along the evolutionary process. Additionally, it models collaborations between multiple parasites and a single host. To improve(More)
  • Antonio Estache, Maria Elena Pinglo, +7 authors Martin Rodriguez-Pardina
  • 2004
This paper presents a basic assessment of the financial performance of infrastructure service operators in developing countries. It relies on a new database of 120 companies put together to track the evolution of the cost of capital, the cost of equity and the return to equity for electricity, water and sanitation, railways and port operators in 31(More)
2014 To my Mother: She is a kind hearted woman in a hateful world who caught every thing that life ever hurled, but like the oldest mountain she always stood so tall, forever showing what it means to be unbreakable. She was the one who taught the sun to shine... She is the person I aspire to be. Acknowledgements First and foremost, I would like to thank my(More)