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INTRODUCTION The purpose of this pilot clinical study was to determine if a novel chest compression device would improve hemodynamics when compared to manual chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in humans. The device is an automated self-adjusting electromechanical chest compressor based on AutoPulse technology (Revivant Corporation)(More)
In this article, we advance a hypothesis for the rupture of thin fibrous cap atheroma, namely that minute (10-mum-diameter) cellular-level microcalcifications in the cap, which heretofore have gone undetected because they lie below the visibility of current in vivo imaging techniques, cause local stress concentrations that lead to interfacial debonding. New(More)
Osteocyte apoptosis is spatially and temporally linked to bone fatigue-induced microdamage and to subsequent intracortical remodeling. Specifically, osteocytes surrounding fatigue microcracks in bone undergo apoptosis, and those regions containing apoptotic osteocytes co-localize exactly with areas subsequently resorbed by osteoclasts. Here we tested the(More)
In this paper, we further investigate the new paradigm for the rupture of thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) proposed in Vengrenyuk et al. (2006 PNAS 103:14678) using a multilevel micro-CT based 3D numerical modeling. The new paradigm proposes that the rupture of TCFA is due to stress-induced interfacial debonding of cellular--level, 10-20 microm(More)
Current micro-computed tomography (µCT) systems allow scanning bone at resolutions capable of three-dimensional (3D) characterization of intracortical vascular porosity and osteocyte lacunae. However, the scanning and reconstruction parameters along with the image segmentation method affect the accuracy of the measurements. In this study, the effects of(More)
A new method for the experimental determination of the permeability of a small sample of a fluid-saturated hierarchically structured porous material is described and applied to the determination of the lacunar-canalicular permeability [Formula: see text] in bone. The interest in the permeability of the lacunar-canalicular pore system (LCS) is due to the(More)
There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as(More)
The role of microcalcifications (μCalcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that μCalcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries(More)
Using 2.1-µm high-resolution microcomputed tomography, we have examined the spatial distribution, clustering, and shape of nearly 35,000 microcalcifications (µCalcs) ≥ 5 µm in the fibrous caps of 22 nonruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. The vast majority of these µCalcs were <15 µm and invisible at the previously used 6.7-µm resolution. A greatly(More)
Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques (VP) in coronary arteries accounts for significant level of morbidity. Their main risk is associated with their rupture which may prompt fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications (micro-Ca), embedded in the VP fibrous cap, in the plaque rupture mechanics has been recently established. However, their(More)