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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
We have sequenced and annotated the genome of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), which contains the smallest number of protein-coding genes yet recorded for a eukaryote: 4,824. The centromeres are between 35 and 110 kilobases (kb) and contain related repeats including a highly conserved 1.8-kb element. Regions upstream of genes are longer than in(More)
Carcinoma of the breast and ovary account for one-third of all cancers occurring in women and together are responsible for approximately one-quarter of cancer-related deaths in females. The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast cancers and this alteration is associated with disease behavior. In this report,(More)
Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed(More)
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a homology-dependent process that reduces cytoplasmic RNA levels. In several experimental systems, there is also an association of PTGS with methylation of DNA. To investigate this association, we used plants carrying a transgene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Gene silencing was induced using(More)
A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in a community of about 105,000 people is reported. The study protocol combined rapid clinical assessment of patients with accurate diagnosis of the pathological type of stroke by CT or necropsy, whether or not they were admitted to hospital. The study population was defined as those people who were(More)
BACKGROUND Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome characterized by an increased frequency of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is associated with small interstitial deletions of chromosome 22q11. METHODS We evaluated 50 adults with VCFS using a structured clinical interview (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry or Psychiatric(More)
BACKGROUND Previous twin studies have supported a genetic contribution to the major categories of psychotic disorders, but few of these have employed operational diagnostic criteria, and no such study has been based on a sample that included the full range of functional psychotic disorders. METHODS A total of 224 twin probands (106 monozygotic, 118(More)
CONTEXT Evidence is lacking that a dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in total fat can influence breast cancer recurrence or survival. OBJECTIVE To assess whether a major increase in vegetable, fruit, and fiber intake and a decrease in dietary fat intake reduces the risk of recurrent and new primary breast cancer and all-cause(More)
Using a recombinant potato virus X (PVX) vector, we investigated the relationship between the length of RNA sequence identity with a transgene and the ability to promote post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and transgene methylation. The lower size limit required for targeting reporter transgene mRNA de novo using PTGS was 23 nucleotides (nt) of(More)