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The extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL, Fernblock) is an oral photoprotectant with strong antioxidative properties. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have shown 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic), 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (vanillic) and(More)
The liver is the most important target for toxicity caused by drugs. This vulnerability is a consequence of the functional features of the liver and their role in the metabolic elimination of most drugs. Therefore, evaluation of potential hepatotoxicity represents a critical step in the development of new drugs. The liver is very active in metabolising(More)
Many natural chemicals in food are in the nanometer size range, and the selective uptake of nutrients with nanoscale dimensions by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a normal physiological process. Novel engineered nanomaterials (NMs) can bring various benefits to food, e.g., enhancing nutrition. Assessing potential risks requires an understanding of the(More)
ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification(More)
Engineered metal/mineral, lipid and biochemical macromolecule nanomaterials (NMs) have potential applications in food. Methodologies for the assessment of NM digestion and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract are nascent and require refinement. A working group was tasked by the International Life Sciences Institute NanoRelease Food Additive project(More)
No consensus exists on how to address possible toxicity of nanomaterials as they interfere with most in vitro screening tests based on colorimetric and fluorimetric probes such as the dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay for detection of oxidative species. In the present research, nanomaterial interaction with DCFH-DA was studied in(More)
In spite of recent advances in describing the health outcomes of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), it still remains unclear how exactly NPs interact with their cellular targets. Size, surface, mass, geometry, and composition may all play a beneficial role as well as causing toxicity. Concerns of scientists, politicians and the public about potential health(More)
Nanogenotoxicity is a crucial endpoint in safety testing of nanomaterials as it addresses potential mutagenicity, which has implications for risks of both genetic disease and carcinogenesis. Within the NanoTEST project, we investigated the genotoxic potential of well-characterised nanoparticles (NPs): titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs of nominal size 20 nm, iron(More)
There are now numerous in vitro and in silico ADME alternatives to in vivo assays but how do different industries incorporate them into their decision tree approaches for risk assessment, bearing in mind that the chemicals tested are intended for widely varying purposes? The extent of the use of animal tests is mainly driven by regulations or by the lack of(More)