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OBJECTIVE To assess the role of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (SWT), in a prospective randomized controlled trial, comparing limited SWT vs sham therapy in men with Peyronie's disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 36 men were randomized to six sessions of SWT or sham treatment. Geometrical measurements of penile length and deformity, and the abridged(More)
As more research is undertaken on the elderly, accurately assessing changes in their quality of life becomes increasingly important. Generic instruments are the most popular method to assess quality of life, and one of the most widely used is the EQ-5D. However, the range of dimensions, sensitivity of scales and completion rates have been raised as concerns(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular disease. However, the weight of evidence is insufficient for the WHO to implement a health-based guideline for water hardness. This study followed WHO recommendations to assess the feasibility of using ecological time series data from areas(More)
OBJECTIVE Flexible cystoscopy is routinely performed under local anaesthetic. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of using an anaesthetic gel and a non-anaesthetic gel in the same patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS Men undergoing 3-monthly check cystoscopies were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Primary(More)
The aim of this study is to systematically review and critically assess analytical observational epidemiology studies investigating the association between levels of drinking water hardness and cardiovascular disease. We searched electronic databases and used standardised forms to extract data and assess study quality. Of 2,906 papers identified, 14 met the(More)
PURPOSE The mechanical theory of glaucoma postulates that raised intraocular pressure (IOP) causes laminar distortion resulting in damage to axons at the optic nerve head. There is some evidence that the change in morphology may occur over a short time course. The aim of this paper was to detail the acute morphologic changes at the optic nerve head when IOP(More)
BACKGROUND The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile [HIP] is a brief pragmatic tool, which enables mental health nurses to work together with patients to screen physical health and take evidence-based action when variables are identified to be at risk. Piloting has demonstrated clinical utility and acceptability. METHODS/DESIGN A single blind(More)
In epidemiological studies of infectious diseases it is not unusual to find that some potential risk factors are negatively associated with risk of illness. The mechanisms generating these associations are unclear in many cases, though one explanation is immunity due to prior exposure. We derive mathematical models for the proportion of a population who are(More)
During 2001, a large outbreak of foot and mouth disease occurred in the United Kingdom, during which approximately 2,030 confirmed cases of the disease were reported, >6 million animals were slaughtered, and strict restrictions on access to the countryside were imposed. We report a dramatic decline in the reported incidence of human cryptosporidiosis in(More)
This prospective patient-preference study examined the effectiveness in practice of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment and the beliefs of subjects regarding these drugs. A total of 361 opiate-dependent individuals (89% of those eligible, presenting for treatment over 2 years at a drug service in England) received rapid titration then(More)