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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response detects malfunctions in cellular physiology, and microbial pattern recognition receptors recognize external threats posed by infectious agents. This study has investigated whether proinflammatory cytokine expression by monocyte-derived dendritic cells is affected by the induction of ER stress. Activation of ER(More)
Helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets require the expression of different coreceptors (CD4 and CD8, respectively) for their development and function. We have cloned the CD8 gene locus from genomic cosmid and P1 libraries and analyzed the region around the CD8alpha and CD8beta genes for gene expression regulatory elements. DNase I (DNase I) hypersensitivity(More)
The molecular mechanisms whereby the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling responses remain to be elucidated. To investigate this question, we have reconstituted CD45 (encoded by Ptprc)-deficient mice, which display severe defects in thymic development, with five different expression levels of transgenic CD45RO, or(More)
The CD45 phosphotyrosine phosphatase is expressed on T cells as multiple isoforms due to alternative splicing. The panoply of isoforms expressed is tightly regulated during T cell development and on mature peripheral T cell subsets following activation. We describe the analysis of comparative CD45 isoform expression levels on thymic and T cell subsets from(More)
CD8 is a T cell surface glycoprotein that participates in recognition of peptide/MHC class I molecules by binding to their alpha 3 domains. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of CD8 associates with the intracellular tyrosine kinase p56(lck) (lck) promoting recruitment of lck to the TCR signaling complex. Recent data have suggested also that CD8 may(More)
The CD45 tyrosine phosphatase is required for T cell development and function by virtue of its role as a positive regulator of src family kinase activity. In addition, recent data have highlighted that CD45 also acts as a negative regulator of Lck function by dephosphorylation of critical tyrosine residues. Lck functionality and TCR responsiveness are(More)
The CD8alphabeta heterodimer is integral to the selection of the class I-restricted lineage in the thymus; however, the contribution of the CD8beta chain to coreceptor function is poorly understood. To understand whether the CD8beta membrane proximal stalk region played a role in coreceptor function, we substituted it with the corresponding sequence from(More)
1 Introduction The following literature is an interim reflection of the collated research examining the role of collaborative governance and planning in addressing the divisions of a contested city, such as Belfast. This interim paper is structured in three main sections: a literature review exploring the aspect of collaborative planning and governance; an(More)
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