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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metalloproteinase and a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 is a newly described enzyme identified in rodents and humans with a more restricted distribution than ACE, and is found mainly in heart and kidney. ACE2 cleaves a single residue from angiotensin I (Ang I) to generate Ang 1-9, and(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is an important modulator of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) through its role to degrade angiotensin (Ang) II. Depletion of kidney ACE2 occurs following kidney injury due to renal mass reduction and may contribute to progressive kidney disease. This study assessed the effect of diminazine aceturate (DIZE), which has(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of intensive structured care to optimise blood pressure control based on individual absolute risk targets in primary care. DESIGN Pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING General practices throughout Australia, except Northern Territory, 2009-11. PARTICIPANTS Of 2185 patients from 119 general(More)
BACKGROUND In comparison to the well established changes in compliance that occur at the large vessel level in diabetes, much less is known about the changes in compliance of the cardiovascular system at the end-organ level. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether there was a correlation between resistance of the intrarenal arteries of the(More)
Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart and renal failure, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II. An "alternate" arm of the RAS now exists in which ACE2 counterbalances the(More)
BACKGROUND The prognostic benefits of beta-blockers (BB) in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF) are known but despite this, in patients with diabetes they are underutilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of beta-blockers (BB) on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and systolic heart failure (SHF) stratified to(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine protocol adherence to structured intensive management in the Valsartan Intensified Primary carE Reduction of Blood Pressure (VIPER-BP) study involving 119 primary care clinics and 1562 randomized participants. METHODS Prospective criteria for assessing adherence to treatment prescription, uptitration, and visit attendance at 6, 10,(More)
BACKGROUND Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been implicated in the cardiac and kidney complications of type 2 diabetes, and the CTGF -945 G/C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis, a disease characterised by tissue fibrosis. This study investigated the association of the CTGF -945 G/C promoter variant with cardiac(More)
We previously reported that exogenous angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 has adverse cardiac effects in experimental kidney failure due to its action to increase cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. This study investigated if the addition of an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) to Ang 1-7 infusion would unmask any beneficial effects of Ang 1-7 on the heart in(More)