Learn More
RNA silencing is a sequence-specific RNA degradation process that follows the recognition of double-stranded RNA. Here, we show that virus vectors carrying parts of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene targeted RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis against the entire GFP RNA. These results indicate that there was spreading of RNA(More)
One of the functions of RNA silencing in plants is antiviral defense. A hallmark of RNA silencing is spreading of the silenced state through the plant. Little is known about the nature of the systemic silencing signal and the proteins required for its production, transport, and reception in plant tissues. Here, we show that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase(More)
BACKGROUND The association between DNA methylation and gene silencing has long been recognized; however, signals that initiate de novo methylation are largely unknown. In plants, recognition of RNAs that are inducers of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) can result in sequence-specific DNA methylation, and the aim of this work was to investigate(More)
Here we use intravital imaging to demonstrate a reversible transition to a motile state as breast cancer cells spread. Imaging primary tumours revealed heterogeneity in cell morphology and motility. Two distinct modes of motility were observed: collective and single-celled. By monitoring the localization of Smad2 and the activity of a TGFbeta-dependent(More)
Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and(More)
Expansins are now generally accepted to be key regulators of wall extension during growth. Several alternative roles for expansins have emerged in which the emphasis of their action is on wall breakdown or softening in processes such as fruit ripening, pollination, germination and abscission. Expansins are commonly encoded by substantial gene families and(More)
Desmosomes are intercellular junctions of epithelia and are of widespread importance in the maintenance of tissue architecture. We provide evidence that desmosomal adhesion has a function in epithelial morphogenesis and cell-type-specific positioning. Blocking peptides corresponding to the cell adhesion recognition (CAR) sites of desmosomal cadherins block(More)
Toll is the founder of a group of pattern recognition receptors that play a critical role in the innate immunity in Drosophila. At least 10 distinct Toll-like receptors (TLRs), recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, have now been identified in humans. Most investigations on TLRs have focused on cells of the innate system. We report here that(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing numbers of people will die with dementia, many in the acute hospital. It is often not perceived to be a life-limiting illness. AIMS To investigate the prevalence of dementia in older people undergoing emergency medical admission and its effect on outcomes. METHOD Longitudinal cohort study of 617 people (aged over 70). The main(More)
Craterostigma plantagineum is one of the few higher plants capable of surviving desiccation throughout its vegetative tissues. Water loss results in cell shrinkage and a commensurate folding of the cell wall indicating an unusual degree of wall flexibility. We show that wall extensibility undergoes a marked increase during dehydration and rehydration.(More)