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In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behaviour and morphological adaptation support this notion. Thus,(More)
Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Glomeruli were stained(More)
Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only be understood when integrating this with information on the(More)
Long-term memory (LTM) formation usually requires repeated, spaced learning events and is achieved by the synthesis of specific proteins. Other memory forms require a single learning experience and are independent of protein synthesis. We investigated in two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, whether natural(More)
Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory(More)
In terrestrial food webs, the study of multitrophic interactions traditionally has focused on organisms that share a common domain, mainly above ground. In the last two decades, it has become clear that to further understand multitrophic interactions, the barrier between the belowground and aboveground domains has to be crossed. Belowground organisms that(More)
The majority of studies exploring interactions between above- and below-ground biota have been focused on the effects of root-associated organisms on foliar herbivorous insects. This study examined the effects of foliar herbivory by Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on the performance of the root herbivore Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)(More)
Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata (L.) and Cotesia rubecula (Marshall) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), are different in their associative learning of plant odors. To provide a solid basis for our research on the mechanisms that underlie this difference, we described the morphology of the antennal sensilla of these two species using(More)
Exotic plants often generate physical and chemical changes in native plant communities where they become established. A major challenge is to understand how novel plants may affect trophic interactions in their new habitats, and how native herbivores and their natural enemies might respond to them. We compared the oviposition preference and offspring(More)
A brief 2-hr experience with hostDrosophila larvae in artificial apple-yeast or mushroom microhabitats had three effects on the foraging behavior of femaleLeptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) parasitoids under field conditions. First, experienced females released at the center of circular arrays of apple-yeast and mushroom baits were more likely(More)