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Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms, robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones are scant. Existing literature indicates that, in contrast(More)
In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behaviour and morphological adaptation support this notion. Thus,(More)
Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata (L.) and Cotesia rubecula (Marshall) (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), are different in their associative learning of plant odors. To provide a solid basis for our research on the mechanisms that underlie this difference, we described the morphology of the antennal sensilla of these two species using(More)
Field experiments with foraging parasitoids are essential to validate the conclusions from laboratory studies and to interpret differences in searching and host selection behaviour of parasitoid species. Furthermore, field experiments can indicate whether the parameters measured in the laboratory are relevant to elucidation of the ecological processes under(More)
Long-term memory (LTM) formation usually requires repeated, spaced learning events and is achieved by the synthesis of specific proteins. Other memory forms require a single learning experience and are independent of protein synthesis. We investigated in two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, whether natural(More)
Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Glomeruli were stained(More)
Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only be understood when integrating this with information on the(More)
The majority of studies exploring interactions between above- and below-ground biota have been focused on the effects of root-associated organisms on foliar herbivorous insects. This study examined the effects of foliar herbivory by Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on the performance of the root herbivore Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)(More)
In terrestrial food webs, the study of multitrophic interactions traditionally has focused on organisms that share a common domain, mainly above ground. In the last two decades, it has become clear that to further understand multitrophic interactions, the barrier between the belowground and aboveground domains has to be crossed. Belowground organisms that(More)
Exotic plants often generate physical and chemical changes in native plant communities where they become established. A major challenge is to understand how novel plants may affect trophic interactions in their new habitats, and how native herbivores and their natural enemies might respond to them. We compared the oviposition preference and offspring(More)