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Vascular repair by adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is well-appreciated because these cells are known for their plasticity. We have shown that adult HSCs differentiate into endothelial cells and participate in both retinal and choroidal neovascularization. We asked whether HSCs participated in the wounding response by forming astrocytes, retinal(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the timing of differentiation, antigenic expression, morphology, proliferative potential, and apoptosis during astrocyte differentiation in the rat retina in vivo. METHODS Whole mounts of rat retinae from embryonic day (E) 13 to postnatal day (P) 21 and adults were examined utilizing combinations of Pax2, GFAP, vimentin, S100, and(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate evidence for the presence of vascular precursor cells (angioblasts) and astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) in the developing human retina and determine their relationship. METHODS Pax-2/GFAP/CD-34 triple-label immunohistochemistry was applied to four retinas aged 12, 14, 16, and 20 weeks of gestation (WG) to label APCs, astrocytes, and(More)
We asked whether the hypoxia-regulated factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), could modulate stem cell factor receptor (c-kit+), stem cell antigen-1 (sca-1+), hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), or CD34+ endothelial precursor cell (EPC) function. Exposure of CD34+ EPCs to IGFBP3 resulted in rapid differentiation into endothelial cells and(More)
We developed a measure of pericyte/endothelial interaction, the desmin ensheathment ratio (DER), using the intermediate filament desmin as an indicator of pericyte ensheathment and have examined the DER in normal retinal vascular development and in the kitten retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) model. We also examined the role of mural cells in the(More)
Mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) regulate blood flow and contribute to vessel stability. We examined whether mural cell changes accompany age-related alterations in the microvasculature of the central nervous system. The retinas of young adult and aged Wistar rats were subjected to immunohistofluorescence analysis of alpha-smooth muscle actin(More)
PURPOSE Dilated and tortuous vessels (plus disease) in ROP is a grim prognostic indicator of visual outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alterations in pericytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), are associated with the pathogenesis of ROP, including plus disease. METHODS Kittens were exposed to either 4 (standard obliterative model)(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the possible contribution of inflammation and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the central nervous system (CNS) of physiologically aged rats showing cognitive decline. METHODS Young (3- to 6-month-old) and aged (24- to 30-month-old) Wistar rats were assessed by the novel object recognition test. Vascular and inflammatory(More)
PURPOSE To examine mural cell differentiation and pericyte ensheathment during human choroidal vascular formation and into adulthood. METHODS Triple- and double-labeled immunohistochemistry (alpha-smooth muscle actin [αSMA], desmin, NG2, calponin, caldesmon, CD44, CD34, and CD39) were applied to human fetal (8-32 weeks' gestation) and adult choroidal and(More)
Human fetal eyes 8-40 weeks gestation (WG) were examined using markers to hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), vascular precursor cells (VPC), monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells (EC). Electron microscopy and bromo-deoxyuridene labeling were undertaken to confirm the existence of solid vascular cords and to demonstrate vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in(More)