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Tetrahydrobiopterin is a critical cofactor for the NO synthases, and in its absence these enzymes become "uncoupled," producing reactive oxygen species (ROSs) rather than NO. In aortas of mice with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertension, ROS production from NO synthase is markedly increased, and tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation is evident.(More)
RATIONALE Superoxide (O2(-) ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including hypertension; however, commonly used antioxidants have proven ineffective in clinical trials. It is possible that these agents are not adequately delivered to the subcellular sites of superoxide production. OBJECTIVE Because the mitochondria are(More)
Hypertension caused by angiotensin II is dependent on vascular superoxide (O2*-) production. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase is a major source of vascular O2*- and is activated by angiotensin II in vitro. However, its role in angiotensin II-induced hypertension in vivo is less clear. In the present studies, we used mice(More)
Hypertension promotes atherosclerosis and is a major source of morbidity and mortality. We show that mice lacking T and B cells (RAG-1-/- mice) have blunted hypertension and do not develop abnormalities of vascular function during angiotensin II infusion or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt. Adoptive transfer of T, but not B, cells restored these(More)
We have shown previously that T cells are required for the full development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. However, the specific subsets of T cells that are important in this process are unknown. T helper 17 cells represent a novel subset that produces the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17). We found that angiotensin II infusion(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke due almost exclusively to emboli from left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi. Recently, we reported that AF was associated with endocardial dysfunction, limited to the left atrium (LA) and LAA and manifest as reduced nitric oxide (NO*) production and increased expression of(More)
Recently, it was demonstrated that superoxide oxidizes dihydroethidium to a specific fluorescent product (oxyethidium) that differs from ethidium by the presence of an additional oxygen atom in its molecular structure. We have adapted this new HPLC-based assay to quantify this product as a tool to estimate intracellular superoxide in intact tissues.(More)
We previously found that angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), and proposed that this is a compensatory mechanism that blunts the hypertensive response and preserves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. To test this hypothesis, we studied ecSOD-deficient mice. ecSOD(-/-) and C57Blk/6 mice had(More)
RATIONALE We have previously found that T lymphocytes are essential for development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension; however, the mechanisms responsible for T-cell activation in hypertension remain undefined. OBJECTIVE We sought to study the roles of the CNS and pressure elevation in T-cell activation and vascular inflammation caused by angiotensin(More)
The circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack a well-formed blood-brain barrier and produce superoxide in response to angiotensin II and other hypertensive stimuli. This increase in central superoxide has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure. The extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is highly expressed in cells associated with CVOs and(More)