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This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular(More)
Over the past two decades, molecular phylogenetic data have allowed evaluations of hypotheses on the evolution of green algae based on vegetative morphological and ultrastructural characters. Higher taxa are now generally recognized on the basis of ultrastructural characters. Molecular analyses have mostly employed primarily nuclear small subunit rDNA (18S)(More)
Two newly isolated strains of green algae from alpine regions were compared physiologically at different culture ages (1, 6, 9 and 15 months). The strains of Zygnema sp. were from different altitudes (‘Saalach’ (S), 440 m above sea level (a.s.l.), SAG 2419 and ‘Elmau-Alm’ (E-A), 1,500 m a.s.l., SAG 2418). Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences grouped the(More)
The osmotic potential and effects of plasmolysis on photosynthetic oxygen evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence were studied in two Arctic Zygnema sp. (strain B, strain G) and two Antarctic Zygnema sp. (strain E, strain D). Antarctic strain D was newly characterized by rbcL sequence analysis in the present study. The two Antarctic strains, D and E, are(More)
The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was(More)
Recent molecular data suggest that desert green algae have evolved from freshwater ancestors at least 14 times in three major classes (Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Charophyceae), offering a unique opportunity to study the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to life on land in a comparative phylogenetic framework. We examined the photorecovery of(More)
The osmotic potential and effects of plasmolysis were investigated in two different Klebsormidium strains from alpine habitats by incubation in 300–2,000 (3,000) mM sorbitol. Several members of this genus were previously found to tolerate desiccation in the vegetative state yet information was lacking on the osmotic potentials of these algae. The strains(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has become an important stress factor in polar regions due to anthropogenically induced ozone depletion. Although extensive research has been conducted on adaptations of polar organisms to this stress factor, few studies have focused on semi-terrestrial algae so far, in spite of their apparent vulnerability. This study(More)
Although wild ducks are known to be a major reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV), there are few recent published reports of surveillance directed at this group. Predominant AIV hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes reported in previous studies of ducks in North America include H3, H4, and H6, with the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes not well represented in these host(More)
The similarity of certain reported angiosperm rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences to those of green algae prompted our analysis of the deep-level phylogenetic signal in the highly conserved but short 5.8S and hypervariable ITS2 sequences. We found that 5.8S sequences yield phylogenetic trees similar to but less well supported than those(More)