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BACKGROUND Most children with detectable peanut-specific IgE (P-sIgE) are not allergic to peanut. We addressed 2 non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the discrepancy between allergy and sensitization: (1) differences in P-sIgE levels between children with peanut allergy (PA) and peanut-sensitized but tolerant (PS) children and (2) the presence of an IgE(More)
Over the last four decades, molecular cloning has evolved tremendously. Efficient products allowing assembly of multiple DNA fragments have become available. However, cost-effective tools for engineering antibodies of different specificities, isotypes and species are still needed for many research and clinical applications in academia. Here, we report a(More)
IgG4 purified from patients undergoing specific allergen immunotherapy inhibits the activities of the serum IgE in in vitro assays and is thought to reduce the symptoms of the disease. However, it is not known whether this is related to an intrinsic property of this subclass or only the allergen specificity. We tested the hypothesis that allergen(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies of immunoglobulin gene sequences in patients with allergic diseases using low-throughput Sanger sequencing have limited the analytic depth for characterization of IgE repertoires. OBJECTIVES We used a high-throughput, next-generation sequencing approach to characterize immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IGH) repertoires in(More)
Allergic responses are dependent on the highly specific effector functions of IgE antibodies. Conversely, antibodies that block the activity of IgE can mediate tolerance to allergen. Technologies that harness the unparalleled specificity of antibody responses have revolutionized the way that we diagnose and treat human disease. This area of research(More)
IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in human serum, representing less than 5% of all IgG. Increases in IgG4 occur following chronic exposure to antigen and are generally associated with states of immune tolerance. In line with this, IgG4 is regarded as an anti-inflammatory antibody with a limited ability to elicit effective immune responses.(More)
BACKGROUND The calcium-binding 2EF-hand protein Phl p 7 from timothy grass pollen is a highly cross-reactive pollen pan-allergen that can induce severe clinical symptoms in allergic patients. Recently, a human monoclonal Phl p 7-specific IgG4 antibody (mAb102.1F10) was isolated from a patient who had received grass pollen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). (More)
Section 63 of the Mental Health Act 1983 states that an approved clinician can provide medical treatment irrespective of whether or not a detained patient has capacity to refuse such treatment. Case law has established that a range of acts ancillary to the core mental disorder treatment are allowed under Section 63. This article analyses a unique court(More)
BACKGROUND The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between government, industry, and other organisations to improve public health by addressing alcohol, food, health at work, and physical activity. This paper analyses the RD physical activity (PA) pledges in terms of the evidence of(More)
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