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Although many different mutations in humans and Drosophila cause retinal degeneration, in most cases, a molecular mechanism for the degeneration has not been found. We now demonstrate the existence of stable, persistent complexes between rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin in several different retinal degeneration mutants. Elimination of these(More)
We have prepared antibodies specific for HSET, the human homologue of the KAR3 family of minus end-directed motors. Immuno-EM with these antibodies indicates that HSET frequently localizes between microtubules within the mammalian metaphase spindle consistent with a microtubule cross-linking function. Microinjection experiments show that HSET activity is(More)
We used computer simulation to understand the functional relationships between motor (dynein, HSET, and Eg5) and non-motor (NuMA) proteins involved in microtubule aster organization. The simulation accurately predicted microtubule organization under all combinations of motor and non-motor proteins, provided that microtubule cross-links at minus-ends were(More)
We examined spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells after simultaneous perturbation of the chromokinesin Kid and either NuMA, CENP-E, or HSET. Spindle morphology and chromosome alignment after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and either HSET or CENP-E were no different from when either HSET or CENP-E was perturbed alone. However,(More)
The cortical cytoskeleton mediates a range of cellular activities such as endocytosis, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell rigidity. Traditional polymers, including actin, microtubules, and septins, contribute to the cortical cytoskeleton, but additional filament systems may also exist. In yeast cells, cortical structures called eisosomes generate(More)
Anchorage of microtubule minus ends at spindle poles has been proposed to bear the load of poleward forces exerted by kinetochore-associated motors so that chromosomes move toward the poles rather than the poles toward the chromosomes. To test this hypothesis, we monitored chromosome movement during mitosis after perturbation of nuclear mitotic apparatus(More)
During meiosis, sister chromatid cohesion is required for normal levels of homologous recombination, although how cohesion regulates exchange is not understood. Null mutations in orientation disruptor (ord) ablate arm and centromeric cohesion during Drosophila meiosis and severely reduce homologous crossovers in mutant oocytes. We show that ORD protein(More)
The septins are conserved, GTP-binding proteins important for cytokinesis, membrane compartmentalization, and exocytosis. However, it is unknown how septins are arranged within higher-order structures in cells. To determine the organization of septins in live cells, we developed a polarized fluorescence microscopy system to monitor the orientation of GFP(More)
Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins that assemble into heteromeric complexes that form filaments and higher-order structures in cells. What directs filament assembly, determines the size of higher-order septin structures, and governs septin dynamics is still not well understood. We previously identified two kinases essential for septin ring assembly(More)
Cytoskeletal polymers are organized into a wide variety of higher-order structures in cells. The yeast BAR domain protein Pil1 self-assembles into tubules in vitro, and forms linear polymers at cortical eisosomes in cells. In the fission yeast S. pombe, over-expressed Pil1 forms thick rods that detach from the plasma membrane. In this study, we used(More)