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Although many different mutations in humans and Drosophila cause retinal degeneration, in most cases, a molecular mechanism for the degeneration has not been found. We now demonstrate the existence of stable, persistent complexes between rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin in several different retinal degeneration mutants. Elimination of these(More)
We have prepared antibodies specific for HSET, the human homologue of the KAR3 family of minus end-directed motors. Immuno-EM with these antibodies indicates that HSET frequently localizes between microtubules within the mammalian metaphase spindle consistent with a microtubule cross-linking function. Microinjection experiments show that HSET activity is(More)
NuMA is a 236 kDa nuclear protein that is required for the organization of the mitotic spindle. To determine how NuMA redistributes in the cell during mitosis, we have examined the behavior of NuMA in a mammalian mitotic extract under conditions conducive to the reassembly of interphase nuclei. NuMA is a soluble protein in mitotic extracts prepared from(More)
Anchorage of microtubule minus ends at spindle poles has been proposed to bear the load of poleward forces exerted by kinetochore-associated motors so that chromosomes move toward the poles rather than the poles toward the chromosomes. To test this hypothesis, we monitored chromosome movement during mitosis after perturbation of nuclear mitotic apparatus(More)
During meiosis, sister chromatid cohesion is required for normal levels of homologous recombination, although how cohesion regulates exchange is not understood. Null mutations in orientation disruptor (ord) ablate arm and centromeric cohesion during Drosophila meiosis and severely reduce homologous crossovers in mutant oocytes. We show that ORD protein(More)
NuMA associates with microtubule motors during mitosis to perform an essential role in organizing microtubule minus ends at spindle poles. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we show that NuMA is a component of an electron-dense material concentrated at both mitotic spindle poles in PtK1 cells and the core of microtubule asters formed through a(More)
We examined spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells after simultaneous perturbation of the chromokinesin Kid and either NuMA, CENP-E, or HSET. Spindle morphology and chromosome alignment after simultaneous perturbation of Kid and either HSET or CENP-E were no different from when either HSET or CENP-E was perturbed alone. However,(More)
The development of cell junctions in sea-urchin embryos has been investigated using thin sections, lanthanum-tracer and freeze-fracture techniques. Three types of desmosomes are present: belt desmosomes and spot desmosomes, which attach cells to each other, and hemi-desmosomes, which attach cells to the basement membrane. Two types of septate junctions are(More)
NuMA is a 236 kDa protein that participates in the organization of the mitotic spindle despite its strict localization in the nucleus during interphase. To test how cells progress through mitosis when NuMA is localized in the cytoplasm instead of the nucleus, we have deleted the nuclear localization sequence of NuMA using site-directed mutagenesis and(More)
Chloroplasts develop from proplastids in a process that requires the interplay of nuclear and chloroplast genomes, but key steps in this developmental process have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that the nucleus-localized transcription factors GATA NITRATE-INDUCIBLE CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA1 (CGA1) regulate(More)