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Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N(2)-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally(More)
Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) utilize numerous compounds as terminal electron acceptors, including insoluble iron oxides. The mechanism(s) of insoluble-mineral reduction by DMRB is not well understood. Here we report that extracellular melanin is produced by Shewanella algae BrY. The extracted melanin served as the sole terminal electron(More)
An understanding of the evolution of global transcription regulators is essential for comprehending the complex networks of cellular metabolism that have developed among related organisms. The fur gene encodes one of those regulators – the ferric uptake regulator Fur – widely distributed among bacteria and known to regulate different genes committed to(More)
At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from(More)
The repeated failures reported in cultivating some microbial lineages are a major challenge in microbial ecology and probably linked, in the case of Frankia microsymbionts to atypical patterns of auxotrophy. Comparative genomics of the so far uncultured cluster-2 Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1, with cultivated Frankiae has revealed genome reduction, but no(More)
Bacteria of the genus Frankia are mycelium-forming actinomycetes that are found as nitrogen-fixing facultative symbionts of actinorhizal plants. Although soil-dwelling actinomycetes are well-known producers of bioactive compounds, the genus Frankia has largely gone uninvestigated for this potential. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome sequences of Frankia(More)
Although it is now well-established that decorated lipo-chitooligosaccharide Nod factors are the key rhizobial signals which initiate infection/nodulation in host legume species, the identity of the equivalent microbial signaling molecules in the Frankia/actinorhizal association remains elusive. With the objective of identifying Frankia symbiotic factors we(More)
R-factor mediated bacterial resistance to arsenical salts occurs by active extrusion of the toxic oxyanions from cells of gram negative bacteria. The ars operon of the conjugative plasmid R773 encodes an anion pump. The pump has two polypeptide components. The catalytic subunit, the ArsA protein, is an oxyanion-stimulated ATPase. The membrane component, the(More)
The ars operon of the conjugative R-factor R773 encodes an oxyanion pump that catalyzes extrusion of arsenicals from cells of Escherichia coli. The oxyanion translocation ATPase is composed of two polypeptides, the catalytic ArsA protein and the intrinsic membrane protein, ArsB. The topology of regions of the ArsB protein in the inner membrane was(More)