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permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record(More)
Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4(More)
Among the most interesting mammalian dental specialization is the mandibular 'tooth comb' or 'tooth scraper' that evolved independently in certain primates and other mammals. Its occurrence is most widely known in lemurs and lorises, where it is comprised of the long, slender, procumbent incisors (one or two pairs) and incisiform canines (Fig. 1). In(More)
Low concentrations of the structural protein collagen have recently been reported in dinosaur fossils based primarily on mass spectrometric analyses of whole bone extracts. However, direct spectroscopic characterization of isolated fibrous bone tissues, a crucial test of hypotheses of biomolecular preservation over deep time, has not been performed. Here,(More)
Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced(More)
We report here the discovery of two mammal teeth from the early Cretaceous of Cameroon. These, and some jaw fragments, all from Cameroon, are the only fossil evidence of mammalian evolution from Africa between late Jurassic and Paleocene, a span of at least 85 million years. A triangular upper tooth lacks the principal internal cusp of marsupials and(More)
Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus(More)
Pachyrhachis problematicus is a snake with well-developed hind limbs known from two specimens from the Cenomanian of the Middle East. One specimen has a complete and articulated, albeit crushed skull. The second specimen has a disarticu-lated skull crushed beneath the body. Pachyrhachis has recently been at the center of a debate on the origins and(More)