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Nerve stimulation is considered by many to be the current 'gold standard' for locating peripheral nerves. Thirteen nerve stimulators were subjected to a battery of tests performed by two independent observers under standardised conditions using a digital oscilloscope, a calibrated resistance and a novel scoring system. Individual scores were assigned for… (More)
The "3 in 1" block and the femoral nerve block are widely used for lower limb surgery and postoperative analgesia. Whether these blocks are in fact a same regional block with two different names or represent definitively two different blocks remains controversial. A large number of anatomical as well as functional variations of the lumbar plexus have been… (More)
Four cases of extrapyramidal hypertonic syndrome were observed in 82 children who had been premedicated with small i.m. doses of droperidol. The frequency, time of onset, clinical description and treatment of this complication are discussed.
The physiological basis of neurostimulation is recalled and its use for the placement of needles for neural blockade described. After an account of available equipment, the author gives his reasons for preferring some of it. Based on experience gained with more than ten thousand cases, a protocol for using neurostimulation to insure close placement of… (More)
Brachial plexus blocks for upper extremity surgery: what are the preferred techniques? Brachial plexus anaesthesia for all types of upper extremity surgical procedures cannot be adequately achieved with a single technique. At least, two approaches are required: above the clavicle, Winnie's interscalene brachial plexus block, using a neurostimulator, has… (More)